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Zhuldyz Amanbaevna Zhumashova, applicant
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Kazakhstan";
The article analysis cultural and spiritual changes and development directions within the process of globalization in relation to the west and the east civilization. Authors describe psychological mentality of the west and the east civilization’s development and by this analyze contradictions and competitiveness between two civilizations. In summing up it’s shown that general human values of the west and the east, which is defined as cross-cultural dialogue and tolerance, are described as social cultural factors.
Keywords: civilization, dialogue, the west-the east, cultural values, general human values, cross-cultural dialogues, tolerance.
The West vs. the East. Both these parts together combines as whole universe. The civilization values which have been different from each other is being to become one whole, by splitting the differences and specific peculiarities. Therefore we may refer civilization dialogue to the cell of the general spiritual values. In the process of total globalization it’s logical to be arisen policies concerned with keeping of national and ethnical, local and country, governmental and peoples’ identities and peculiarities. It’s being one of the highest concern to save and to develop national identities in the process of globalization.
The history of civilization is developing. However in spite this development there is no equity , but rather those who gain the victory or lose it. One of the example can be that in some cases the West is in the lead from the East, and in some cases vice versa. It’s natural phenomena. However it’s not one-sided process. It has second meaning. The process of globalization where the Western and the Eastern civilizations are impacted with each other and civilize each other makes general the universe for each of them. This phenomena has negative impacts rather than negatives. As it’s known from scientists researches that ‘human’s equity is based on the fulfillment of different two begin nings the West and the East’ [1, 56].
By referring the West and the East as relatives scientists stop in one statement: The Western and the Eastern human cultures are two directions, two civilizations and two different ways of existence [2, 32]. In fact their difference in spiritual and material values construct together one whole universe civilization.
If to look into the history we may notice that the West which consider old things as used and unnecessary things, develops very fast, and the East, which is regarded to be observers of the universe development and esteem nature and whole natural world, and tries to find harmony in life’s development meaning, doesn’t hurry.
So, what are the differences which makes peculiar the West and the East. What are the main differences of their cultural, civilizational development, social-economic structure, formation of politica life, spiritual renascence? The European Western man thinks that he/she taught the Eastern one to kind of arts (machine creation, technical achievements) which they couldn’t do. But the current situation is absolutely different. We may say that nowadays image of Oriental countries had absolutely changed this point of view. For instance, Japan, the Land of the Rising Sun, had become one of the most developed countries of the world which has stable economy and political structure. The country became one of the most progressive countries in spiritual development with its own peculiar cultural values. China had become today one of the strongest power countries with the stable market economy. Even the USA has to reckon with China. China is noted both with its economic and political development. Also it distinguishes with its development of the spiritual development of philosophy which seeks harmony in essence of life [3, 29].
The difference of the East and the West is psychologically shown through its mentality. European and Oriental philosophy is different. The main reason for this is their attitude and relation to environment. Europeans consider nature as the place of workshop, Oriental countires consider nature as one wholeness it with a humankind essence.
In spite the fact that these two civilizations, two cultures differ from each other, it would be not correct to attempt to find out which one is the best, because these two parts make one whole which can’t live without each other. These days differences and competitiveness of the Western and the Eastern countries is becoming similar because of the globalization process. Therefore both western and eastern countries’ gifted people become the representatives of general civilizational world.
Oriental civilization turned out to be more capable to life. It had experienced many attacks and colonizing policies. Oriental civilization could find a right decision from these difficulties because of its viability and capableness. However Oriental countries was not retarded from European countries which had developed techniques.
These two different crossing civilizations fulfill each other and make one whole universal culture. It will always be crossing and harmony of the Western and the Eastern cultures values and mentalities.
In modern globalization era the universe is becoming whole combined system which consists from different elements. In this case ‘the Universal Western and the Eastern history totally depend on dualism elements: The Earth and the Water, The continent and the Ocean’ – states Karl Shmidt.
Questions concerned with future and future development have high significance in the era of globalization. It’s well known fact that Western man fells spiritual degradation. Some scientists are seeking the basic rules for western culture and art. Also it had arisen question of comparison of modern western art with the eastern spiritual heritage.
Rules of world’s uniting made to born new concepts of cross-cultural harmony and general human tolerance. Cross-cultural harmony in the globalizational process is referred to be as a social cultural factor which establishes harmony amongst countries, which makes to understand each other’s ‘we’.
On the basis of universe thinking lies harmony of idea and opinions, principles and ways of world perception. These kind of harmony is considered to be the point of dialogue intersection .
It’s vivid that modern world is constructed on interdependent economic, technologicasl, informational relations directions. But it’s really dangerous to happen wars and collisions in intersections of these directions.
S. Khantington states that the modern civilization distinguishes with its history, language, reliogion, culture and culstoms from each other . And these differences are called like ‘the East’ nad ‘the West’. If to western it is peculiar rationalism, Christianity, enlightenment, democracy, individuality, for eastern it’s peculiar mystery, sensibility, Islam and Buddhism (and other) religions, traditionality, cooperativeness, governmentalism.
It’s not possible to name concretely one country as the Western or the Eastern. It’s referred to be geographical name. And culture may deploy both the western and the eastern cultures specifications.
It’s peculiar to dialogue to have meaning and social unity. Dialogue’s feature is in its equity of two sides levels. In controversial situations it can turn to monologues with monopoly of one side. Therefore monologue is confession of equity of the unity. It means that only dialogue can be the balance for human relations and equity.
According to dialogue philosophy today’s western crisis is the result of ‘centrism’ where it was main monologue rather than dialogue. Buber M. states in his publication of 1922 that the reason for western crisis was disappearance of ‘you and ‘me’ relation [6, 24-25].
Summing up, we may say that culture which is based on ‘monologue’ is ‘centralized culture’. It means that one side will be prioritizing and the second one will be the twin which repeats everything from upper side.
If to say about dialogue of ‘West-East’ everything is changing. For example, in XIXthe century it was regarded that the European (the Western) sample of civilization must be general for everyone. However this phenomenon is giving its results. For example, in Russian literature the works of Turgenev was written in the best European style. It was born new values based on French culture. At this time Tolstoy and Dostoevsky had destroyed so-called French style and created new style in literature. they could offer new Russian sense of literature for Europeans. They could wonder Europe with Russian peculiarity. India and Japan also had their own style. In fact European well-known enlighteners showed Indians philosophers image of Vivekananda and Aurobindo. The real educated Japanese could prove to Europeans and Americans that they are fully devoted to Buddhism [7, 22].
When there is aggression there is no possibility to construct dialogue, there only way to humiliation of each other. Global two opposite systems communism and anticommunism proved absolutely different beginnings which will never intersect with each other, and that dialogue will never been constructed. All attention was paid to difference and disharmonious peculiarities of the West and the East.
Today the world is becoming one whole. It seeks for new peace. It’s being developed cooperation in the sake of united development and international safety. In the modern world there is no country which could resist to economical and political modernization process. For example, Western countries cannot guarantee their safety without deciding problems concerned with the Eastern countries.
Western economic, political and cultural standards’ global expansion and artificial change of the eastern countries to the western made even more differences in the West and the East. Concept of ‘Cultural dialogue’ is used as interpretation for ‘Exchange of Cultural products’ and destroyed all cultural values, and changed all values and cultures to goods. To this point it’s regarded to state the words of K. Levi-Stross who states: ‘Modern man tries to destroy cultural differences which he doesn’t like and tries to understand it’.
It’s logical that many scientists, politics, cultural and art representatives, religious people are concerned with questions of the recent coming future 10-15 years. It’s difficult to forsee the future. Today’s influential ideas may at once lose its power. On the contrary the idea which has only name can turn to be as the most influential philosophical idea. However, dialogue between the East and the West must always be based on peace and unity. And the basement must be the main principle which will lead us to future. This is demand of the past civilization which was proceeded from generation to generation, the demand of the today’s globalizational civilization and it’s demand of civilization which must be left for our future generations.
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