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Uzbek State University of World Languages, Uzbekistan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Uzbekistan";
Ability to speak is human’s trait - the basis of relationships in human society. This is an important means of expressing feelings and sharing thoughts. Language is a complex structure of sounds and symbols, grammar, words, phrases and sayings, has a deeper meaning than their literal meaning.
Translation is one of the oldest human activities. Without this activity it would be difficult to imagine such well-known historical facts, as the creation of a vast empire, the spread of religious and social teachings.
In recent decades the scale of translation activities has increased so, that we can talk about the beginning of a new stage in the history of translation.
The rapid growth of science and technology has caused a great need for information exchange. Every year many international conferences, meetings are held all over the world. Extensive international campaigns, joint research programs are being conducted. Immeasurably increase can be seen in the volume of international trade, diplomatic activities, and international correspondence. Cultural ties between the peoples are expanded.
Translation meets the ever emerging needs among people who do not speak a common language, or, in other words, people separated by Lingo-ethnical barrier.
Every nation and culture has its own characteristics, including language. Of course, every language has such lexical units which are peculiar to him alone. These lexical units are called realias. The term realia was suggested by L.N.Sobolev as back as 1952. The author used the word to denote subjects, phenomena and notions related to everyday life, old times, national culture, social system, and folklore, i.e. specific features of a nation which make it different from other nations. Some other authors suggested the words exotisms, barbarisms, localisms, ethnic and cultural words, background words, words with zero equivalents, etc., which are less known these days. Schweitser and Komissarov use the expression “equivalent-lacking words” for realias. Bolgarian scholars Vlakhov and Florin published a book under the title “Hепереводимоевпереводе” which covers the topic in detail. They give the following definition of realia: “Realias are words and combinations giving names to objects typical of life, culture, social and historical development of only one nation; being bearers of local features, they as a rule, have no correspondences (equivalents) in other languages; thus, they are not translated as other words, but require a special approach.”1
The followings are the most common types of realias:
In order to identify the difficulties which students may come across in translation of realities and non-equivalent vocabulary from a foreign language into the native, we will define the boundary between these two concepts and ways by which students transfer “realities” and “non-equivalent translations” from one language to another. Different methods in translation of realias are identified, but among them oral and written, literal and literary types are more common.
One of the main problems of students in translation of realias and non-equivalent vocabulary in foreign language lessons is that s/he needs to find a suitable equivalent of lexical unit. Introducing students with the concepts such as transcription, transliteration (correspondence between letters and sounds of the two languages ), enables them to be aware of the methods of transmission of English phonemes to the native language.
Various types of activities can be used by the teacher for training students. For example, students can be asked to make cards on which they write English names of famous singers and groups, various foreign companies and geographical names. They should exchange these cards and write indicated realias in their mother tongue. Then students check each other and assign grades.
Literally translation in some cases may not appropriate. To introduce students with such cases the game of “Guess who?” can be offered. The game goes in following way. Teacher calls the names of famous people in mother tongue: Sergei Yesenin, Madonna and etc. Students should guess who those people are. They should write the names in English and next to them correct version in mother tongue: Michael Jackson - МайклДжексон, George Bush - ДжорджБуш,Sting - Стинг, Lady Gaga- ЛедиГага.
In translation there exists the term “false friends” of translator. Indeed, in the English language there is a category of words called “false friends.” They got this name because of their similarity with the words which are familiar for the translator and serves to send him to wrong path. Words related to this category can be divided into 3 groups.
The first group of words are the words that are similar to the words in the first language, but they differ from them in meaning. For example, in the Russian language there are some words which are similar to English words, but the meaning is not the same as one can expect. We can observe it in following examples: accurate - accurate and not neat, ambulatory - a covered gallery, and not ambulatory, benzene - benzene, not gasoline, billet - chump, not a ticket, canicular - related to Sirius, not vacation and etc.
The second group includes words that are named “false friends” only because of their individual meanings: armature means броня (armor), якорь электромотора (motor armature), арматура(armature) (but not in reinforced concrete); champion - поборник(a champion), защитник(defender) and чемпион(champion); conservatory - оранжерея(a greenhouse) and консерватория(conservatory), control –управление(control) and контроль(control), partisan - партизан(partisans) , приверженец(follower), and фанатик(fanatic.)
The third group includes words that are misleading due to the resemblance to the more common words: complement - complement set and compliment – praise; currant - currants and current – flow; chauffer - portable iron stove and chauffeur – chauffeur; courier - courier and currier - tanner.
It is clear from the very category that “false friends” complicate the translation process. To avoid errors in translation and the usage of words, students should be acquainted with the “false friends”. Following exercises can be applied on this purpose.
a) Children are given a list of words, the words that are similar to ones in language one and they are asked to write translations of these words. If students find it difficult, they can be allowed to use a special dictionary.
b) The teacher gives a list of words in native language. The students are asked to pick up appropriate sentence for each word and translate the sentences into mother tongue. For example, the teacher gives a list of Russian words: шкаф, список, агент, интеллигентный, умный, образованный, равновесие(wardrobe, list, agent, intelligent, smart, educated, balance) and offers following sentences in the target language:
Having introduced students with “false friends” of translator it is beneficial to introduce them with "friends of the translator ". So-called system of words refers to the words which are with foreign roots, often used in many other languages of the world and have the same meaning. For example, in the Russian language the words like интернационал, координация, период, субстанцияcan be example of this type. They express the same meaning in the Russian and English language.
Some words are able to disguise themselves very well, for example, to reduce means - уменьшаться, понижать; area means площадь; mixture means смесь; essential means существенныйin the Russian language. Meaning of these words can sometimes be determined without looking at the dictionary, as their roots are used in both languages with the same meaning. For instance, the meaning of the word to reduce can be identified through the word “редуктор” in the Russian language which means a device for lowering the speed or pressure. The word mixture is familiar to many from the Russian word “микстура” which expresses a mixture of different drugs. The word area can be found through the word “ареалу” - the area of distribution of plants and animals, etc.
By logical reasoning children themselves choose these words that resonate with their first language, using them students can make sentences or short stories that illustrate the meaning of the given words.
All realias and non-equivalent vocabulary can be translated from one language to another one by different ways. The task of the student is to choose the most correct translation type. The problem in translation is to choose the appropriate method of translating. Along with the above mentioned translation methods descriptive and approximate methods of translating can be suggested as effective ones as they more accurately convey the meaning and content of the lexical unit. However, students less often choose these methods. In translation it is often required using the combined methods. For example, the transformational translation it is when a transliteration and calking (literal translation) affects insufficiently to transfer the background information.
In conclusion, above mentioned problems shows that it is necessary to teach children the basics of translation from the target language into native one, as it enhances their vocabulary, fixes their knowledge on grammar, teaches them to work with the dictionary, various reference materials and makes the learning process exciting and interesting.
The problem about choosing the transmission of meaning of realities and non-equivalent vocabulary seriously confronts a pupil only if this realia is not mastered in the first language - which is not included in dictionaries, or not relevant to the theme of native language. Usually when transferring mastered realities children use existing "ready" conformity.