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Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University named after Mikhail Kotsyubinskii, Ukraine
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";
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The article is dedicated to the structural components of linguistic personality and its role and place in business discourse. The analysis of approaches to the selection of discourse types and business discourse characteristics in the context of the field has been introduced.
Keywords: linguistic personality, business discourse, speech action, structural components, field discourse.
В статье исследуются структурные компоненты языковой личности, ее роль и место в деловом дискурсе. Представлен анализ подходов, с помощью которых выделяют типы дискурса и особенности делового дискурса в контексте отраслевого в часности.
Ключевые слова: языковая личность, деловой дискурс, речевой акт, отраслевой тип дискурса, структурные компоненты.
Language provides social life of humans. The historical experience of man’s and nation’s life is reflected in culture that expresses the spirit of history and epoch, and thus leads to intercultural communication. The global nature of peoples’ communication nowadays requires the humanistic orientation, which due to cross-cultural communication would allow a person to thrive and evolve basing on the unity of universal and national values. A special role in the development of humanistic personality and creating a favourable atmosphere for the dialogue of cultures is played by a language which serves as environment for the development of human relationships. The success of intercultural communication depends on the carrier of culture and language values, attitudes, knowledge and behavioural responses, who is defined as a linguistic personality.
The problem of definition of linguistic personality and its functioning in different areas of communicative behavior is reflected in the works of Ukrainian and foreign researchers (Bogin G.I., Zasyekina L.V., Karasik V.I., Karaulov Y.N., Krasnyh V.V., Seville-Troike M. and others).
Interest in a human as a linguistic personality can be traced in numerous approaches and interpretations of modern linguistics as well as psychology and psycholinguistics. However, verbal behaviour properties and functioning of linguistic personality in business discourse have not been the object of complex analysis, no synthesis of typological characteristics of business English discourse has been introduced. Hence the relevance of the research is due to the theoretical and practical necessity of studying the issue.
The aim of the study is an attempt to identify the main characteristics of business English discourse, to determine the role and place of business discourse in the linguistic personality activity.
At the present stage of the development of linguistics, there are a great number of approaches to the analysis of discourse as well as to the distinguishing of its types. However, there is no diversity in approaches to study discourse, considering human behaviour as speech activity and the minimum dependent unit of discourse is a speech act. The term "discourse" put into circulation by American linguist Zellig Harris, has gained a wide range of meanings and approaches, which cover the following:
1) discourse as "language above the level of the sentence or phrase»
(S. Harris, M. Stubbs, D. Shyffrin, V.Zvegintsev);
2) discourse as any "use of language" (G. Brown, G. Yule, R. Fasold);
3) discourse as utterance (H. Clark, D. Shyffrin);
4) discourse as text together with extralinguistic (pragmatic, socio-cultural, psychological, etc.) factors, text as a purposeful social action, component of the interaction between people and their mechanisms of consciousness (cognitive processes), the "language in life" (N. Arutyunova).
The generalized definition of discourse suggested by F. Batsevych should be also introduced. It claims that “discourse is the type of communicative activity, interactive phenomenon, the speech stream, which has various forms of expression (oral, written, paralingual), occurs within a particular channel of communication and is governed by the strategy and tactics of participants involved in communication"[1, p.158].
Interpreting the linguistic relevance of discourse as the most substantial category of speech code enables language researchers in the communication process to discover new prospects in studying live human interactions. Observations proved that discourse is not only a specifically structured category of communication, but the unit of speech code within which a particular interaction of semantic, syntactic and pragmatic components is revealed [1, 3, 8].
Discourse is an aggregate of human speech activity which is cognitive and communicative by nature. Hence communicative activity (i.e. discourse) is defined by specific aims and intentions in which a communicant (i.e. linguistic personality) builds up his communicative strategies and tactics.
Problems concerning functioning of linguistic personality in terms of communication, where it is regarded as a generalized image of the carrier of cultural and linguistic values, attitudes, knowledge, behavioural responses and typological features and styles of communication belong to the core issues in the theory of linguistic personality. Our interpretation of linguistic personality tends to be grounded on the definition of the personality as a certain person with particular individual mental, emotional, motivational and volitional qualities.
Interpretation of linguistic personality as a set of cognitive, motivational and emotional characteristics of a person serving a ground for its identity, expressed in language, allows distinguishing structural components of linguistic personality.
Linguistic personality comprises three main components: cognitive, emotional and motivational. The cognitive component is represented by linguistic ability as a psycho physiological background of language acquisition, provided by physical substrate of speech activity – the brain; language abilities, as individual specific characteristics of a person that create the prospective possibilities for the effective mother tongue acquisition both orally and in written form; linguistic knowledge as a set of linguistic (phonological, lexical, grammatical, pragmatic) and encyclopaedic knowledge - common system of well-arranged and ranked units about the world; linguistic strategies as individually peculiar ways of perception and generation of information comprising skills (subconscious automated language operations), skills (heuristic perceived performance in different speech contexts); linguistic competence as a set of knowledge and effective strategies to use their mother tongue; the language picture of the world as amount of knowledge about the world, expressed in the language and subordinate to ethnic vision of specific national and cultural environment carriers [6 , p.24].
Emotional component includes emotional attitude of a person to language reality, in other words – peculiarities of mother tongue functioning, the level of its development, extension and usage in different spheres of social life.
Motivational component embraces aims, motives and intentions. This component provides transformational regularities from evaluation of individual speech activity to understanding oneself as a linguistic personality who is a carrier of the national culture and representative of the national identity. The ultimate aim of linguistic personality self development which is his motive respectively is the formation and improvement of mother tongue means to express the major categories in his native culture.
Establishing the structure of linguistic personality and peculiarities of its functioning through interaction of defined components makes it possible to outline the main directions in the development of linguistic personality in contemporary social environment. The directions focus mainly on those aspects that are not provided by psychophysiological features of the person but are caused primarily by the influence of social factors, namely by structured category of communication.
As part of our research, in the context of business discourse the concept of “linguistic personality" involves considering its language constituent as a system cultural "enzyme" and the mechanism of its development as well as treating it as the personality forming ensemble of how the character of language culture mastering affects individual and social traits of a person. Linguistic personalities may manifest in different contexts of human life - professional, interpersonal, intimate.
Since the subject interest lies in functioning of linguistic personality in terms of business discourse, at this stage the approaches to determination of discourse types need to be analysed.
V. Karasik distinguishes two types of discourse: personal (personality-oriented) and institutional (field), considering them from the positions of various branches of human knowledge. That is to say institutional discourse has as many varieties as institutions: political, educational, scientific, religious, military, sports, health, media discourse, etc .
Somewhat different approach is employed by O. Yashenkova who distinguishes types of discourse according to the field of communication: teaching, medicine, advertising, religion and politics [10, p.190-192].
Analysis of different scientific approaches to point out types of discourse has proved that business discourse covers all types of institutional discourse and provides communication, specified by social functions of the participants and regulated both in content and form. Institutional discourse (communicative activity) is a specialized kind of communication between unacquainted people, who have to communicate in the given coordinates of status and role relationships.
Business discourse (communication) is the fundamental component of social communication in the commercial, administrative, legal, economic and diplomatic spheres. New economic and social conditions led to the commercial and organizational activities in which a great number of people is involved. This situation emphasises the necessity of learning speech patterns used in business communication, improving the linguistic competence of people engaged in social and legal relationship and those who carry out their professional duty.
The ability to conduct business negotiations successfully, properly compose text documents, work with documents is considered to be the most important component of the professional culture of every educated person. Speaking and communicating properly, discussing, commenting - all these kinds of speech activity are a must to be acquired and used in daily professional communication.
A certain type of linguistic personality is particularly evident in the professional and business spheres. The integration concept of linguistic personality suggested by Y. Karaulov treats its structure as a unity of lexicon, thesaurus and pragmatics, which correspond to the following levels:
It is important to emphasize that business communication involves the ability to use one’s own tactic and strategic experience. In order to achieve a certain result, due to practical activity and intentions of communication participants, in business discourse the following strategies are used:
A required condition for successful business discourse is to possess the knowledge of communicative code, which is a system of principles, rules and conventions, which are based on certain categories and criteria and regulate the speech behaviour of the participants. Australian linguist M. Holliday singled out three groups of parameters that form the register of communication: the discourse sphere, the social role disposition and mode of discourse.
The rules and registers of communication pointed above tend to constitute that the language of business discourse spoken by the representative of any language culture must be not only perfect in terms of linguistic rules, but should comprise features of expressiveness, argumentation, logic, accessibility, clarity, etc. A representative of language culture should have a good command of all functional styles of native language: official, scientific, publicist, colloquial. This means that a business person, for example, can equally easily write a scientific report or article, speak at a press conference, give an interview, write a presentation speech, greetings, requests, to say nothing of professional speech activity - drafting documents, conducting meetings, negotiations and business meetings.
As mentioned above, the linguistic personality expresses language behaviour in professional communication, defined as specially organized guided process of exchanging messages of understanding based on scientific principles, organization of mutual understanding, achieving of optimal interaction, mutual cognition in various fields of activity of the participants of professional communication. Professional communication is essential for realization of any activity associated with the interaction of people.
The study of linguistic personality in terms of business discourse helped to understand the fact that any person who is served by the language not only as a set of linguistic rules, but primarily as a means of expressing national cultural space can function as a linguistic personality, whose development is based on comprehensive coverage of all of its structural components (cognitive, emotional, motivational) that are affected by social factors. A detailed study of the linguistic personality of the subject as a complex psychological study enables significant progress in solving urgent problems - psycholinguistics (the phenomenon of bilingualism and its psychological mechanisms), social psychology (problems of communication), ethnic psychology (problems of ethnic consciousness, national character, national and cultural space of formation of interethnic tolerance), educational and age psychology (the problem of language genesis and developmental influences to create a program to optimize its conditions). It should be noted that among the prospects of further business discourse studies the thorough study of its strategies and tactics is of great importance, as well as features of the linguistic personality of the English-language discourse.