facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Page translation
 

Cognitive complexity as a factor of creative intelligence development. Cognitive complexity of the different peoples.

Cognitive complexity as a factor of creative intelligence development. Cognitive complexity of the different peoples.
Sergienko Irina, postgraduate student

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Russia

Conference participant

Creative thinking is not defined unambiguously. There are many options for its measurement. But there is one factor that correlated with creative thinking. It called cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity varies depending on the profession, of belonging to a culture and education. Cognitive complexity also forms the subject's perception. Article useful both for people interested in creative thinking, and for people trying to understand the different factors that affect our perception.

Keywords: Creative thinking, Cognitive complexity, Personal cognitive construct, Cognitive sphere, Emotional assessment, Cognitive styles

To understand individuals one must understand their patterns

George A. Kelly

 

Creative thinking is not explicitly explanation, but can vary depending on various factors. This factor can be a personal cognitive construct. Moreover, cognitive construct varies depending on nationality, which belongs to the subject.

Personal cognitive construct can be represented as a general criterion of perception and evaluation of other people who has different names, but applies almost equally.

Measurement unit of cognitive sphere is a General assessment criteria, i.e. personal construct. It descriptively can be interpreted as an inner category of the subject, the category that it uses in evaluating the surrounding world.

There are the following characteristics of cognitive sphere. The first characteristic of cognitive sphere is a cognitive complexity, representing the number of constructs. Constructs coincide with the amount of attention proposed by Wilhelm Wundt, there are 3, 4, maximum: 6. Construct an emotional assessment is necessarily present in everybody: for example likes or don't like. If you can imagine a man with one construct, this construct will emotional assessment.

There is distinguish between high and low cognitive complexity. The cognitive complexity has a series of related properties of thin. world for man diverse when a high cognitive complexity, this applies to the sensitivity of a man in such a case, their own perception of images more differentiated. You can say, high cognitive complexity often associated with high sensitivity. For example, when we visit the ophthalmologist's office, we impose "Landolt ring", the same incentive used for the assessment of cognitive complexity. If instead of the letter "O" we see letter "C", this indicates a higher cognitive complexity.

High cognitive complexity associated with a specific cognitive style. Cognitive style is a way of perception of the object or situation. We can distinguish cognitive styles at least two. Distinguish global style or put another way, it is called dependent on context-dependent fields, from the background. Man is quite difficult to distinguish between the parts of the object, he sees it as a whole.

There are many examples of tests and cognitive style. For example, we have two pictures, and need to find the differences. Or person needs to see a figure or the image inside the configuration. If there is a global style, highlights some of the differences and it is difficult to separate the configuration. There is a second style, he called a differentiated or independent of fields or of the context. In this case, a person distinguishes the details, it can dismember the object into parts, analyze it. This applies to the subtle details.

High cognitive complexity associated with differentiated style, it is linked with higher levels of development of creative abilities. The decision of creative tasks requires a subtle details, secretive, latent. If the examinee has such subtle details, this indicates a high cognitive complexity. Of course, such a person is able to distinguish and much more.

Here we can go to actually personal characteristics. Such a person is capable of empathy, he distinguishes the person from his attitude towards it. Exactly such a person is available and clear thoughts and feelings of another, and therefore their own. Often high or low cognitive complexity associated with education, with the learned profession.

A popular research results, when compared to the complexity of the two groups of children. One group was Africans, and their family was engaged in agriculture, and in the other group were children of canadian Inuit hunters. It would seem, Africa is associated with multicolored, with a mass of various parts, but cognitive complexity of the African child was low. This is explained by the fact that agriculture requires assimilation of certain stereotypical action, subroutines, with a strict sequence, so these children often bring up an authoritarian way.

Authoritarian education leads to a low cognitive complexity and to a global style. And on the contrary, hunters Eskimos live in a homogeneous environment, among the white snow. But then note that the language of these people have a mass of words to highlight certain shades of white snow, and this is evidence of the high cognitive complexity. Being a hunter, child rather sooner gets into the hands a toy gun, he lives not in an authoritarian way, gets early sufficient independence, and such education is associated with a high in the future cognitive complexity.

We know that not happen uniquely properties of positive or negative. A person with high cognitive complexity, of course, have their challenges. This is the difficulty in making decisions. Note that if the world is heterogeneous, if internal assessments a lot, then there is, of course, the problem of choice. When there is a problem of self-selection, options actually are equal, as the choice of Buridan''s ass. In the case of a difficult choice of indecisive man may adequate use of external funds for the adoption of a volitional decision. Drawing lots can be an external tool, in this case coin is thrown. Then an external tool becomes the basis for decision-making. Here you need to consider one condition: alternatives should be equivalent. These actions are advisable in case of overcoming indecision, when a decision needs to be considered. This decision is connected with the reduction, decrease of cognitive complexity. There are times when you must close your eyes on some of the details to make a decision, or it might not happen. But the foundation should always be internal.

Then we enter the second characteristic of cognitive sphere. It's called the subjective importance of the personal construct. This obviously refers to the personality in general. Significant personal construct is a leading motive of personality, which determines its direction. The significance of the constructs is the frequency of their use, the weight factor, if we speak on a statistical language. This is the basis for decision making.

But if the constructs are not equal, it is connected with the third characteristic, the stability of the cognitive sphere in general. Sustainability is the presence of the structure. The constructs are not equivalent, and now they can be ordered, if for cognitive complex human world is heterogeneous, for a person with a strong cognitive sphere world rationally conceived, the world is knowable, the world can be adequately assessed.

And now, the sustainability of cognitive sphere reflects motivational sphere. Then we will say, that here there are two poles. You would think that people in the arts, writers, artists have a high cognitive complexity, but actually profession with the highest cognitive complexity are actors. They have to try on a variety of masks, have to feel in the role of a hero. Therefore, the actors need to be complex.

If not limited to mental norm and ask again, who is the highest cognitive complexity, the answer is clear - in patients with schizophrenia. The first extreme pole - the lack of sustainability in the selection. If there is no continuity of cognitive sphere, each situation appears not  specific for the subject, decision-making is difficult, if it is not impossible. Then outwardly paradoxical, but internally intuitive conclusion. If such a person has no internal reasons for decisions, he begins to imitate, in everyday life he enjoys a strange point of view. Contrast pole is hardness, rigidity of the structure, it is associated with low complexity. But the main thing is that if the structure is rigid, then any situation are perceived stereotypes, formulaic, and no problems of decision-making no decisions, evil facts. But it turns out that due to this decision, the situation is distorted, misunderstood and inadequately.

The fourth characteristic is referred to as the activity and passivity constructs. Activity construct is his awareness. Construct far not realized, he presented the subject, but it is noisy different names, the subject seems that there are a lot of constructs, but he doesn't realize that there are much smaller. Install awareness constructs can be using the attribution of the causes. There are tests on the level of causal attribution. External attribution can be presented as a case of rock, fate, internal attribution presents in the form of myself. Awareness constructs relates to understanding the motives of the subject. Then the fourth characteristic allows to proceed to the final fifth - inconsistency and consistency of cognitive sphere.

Cognitive sphere can contain internal contradictions, because constructs can be as conscious or not. Often, people decided not realized its base, and there is a contradiction, which is called cognitive dissonance.

Reality appears to us directly, but only through our perception, which imposes various filters. We see only what we want to see. Man has the ability to represent events and the surrounding objects, not simply react to them as incentives. Thus, creative perception comes from our own perspective on the world and the latest forms an integral picture of the perceptions in our lives, which makes our experience. All the variety of damaging factors us leads us to the uniqueness of their own perception, personality-construct plays evaluates the role.

 

References:

1. Allinson, C.W., and Hayes, J. "The cognitive style index: a measure of intuition-analysis for organisational research", Journal of Management Studies (33:1), January 1996, pp 119–135.

2. Beiri, J. "Complexity-simplicity as a personality variable in cognitive and preferential behaviour" Dorsey Press, Homewood, IL, 1961.

3. Guilford J.P. The Nature of Human Intelligence. N.Y., 1967.

4. Fransella, F,(2000) Personal Construct Counselling in Action.

5. Fransella,F Bell,R and Bannister, D A{{2003) Manual for Repertory Grid Technique, 2nd Ed. John Wiley.

6. Festinger, L. (1962). Cognitive dissonance. Scientific American, 207(4), 93-107

7. Kelly, G.A. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton. Kelly’s main opus in two volumes.

8. Kelly, G. A. (1963) A theory of personality New York : W. W. Norton, 1963. First chapters of (Kelly, 1955). An elegant presentation and proof of the theory in the form of a postulate and sixteen corolaries. Does not include description of the Grid.

9. Riding, R.J., and Cheema, I. "Cognitive styles - An overview and integration", Educational Psychology (11:3/4) 1991, pp 193–215.

10. Steinberg, H (November 2001). "[The psychologist and philosopher Wilhelm Wundt and a dedication by his student Emil Kraepelin]". Der Nervenarzt 72 (11): 884.

11. Jankowicz A.D. The Easy Guide to Repertory Grids Chichester: Wiley, 2003. Provides a basic primer in repertory grid technique.

12. Богоявленская Д.Б., Сусоколова И.А. К вопросу о дивергентном мышлении // Психологическая наука и образование. 2006. №1. – C. 85-96

13. Борисова И. В. ВУНДТ // Новая философская энциклопедия. Том первый. М., 2000.

14. Вундт В. Проблемы психологии народов. — М.: Академический проект, 2010. — 136 с.

15. Зборовский Г. Е. История социологии: Учебник. — М.: Гардарики, 2004. — с. 101

 

Comments: 1

Poplavskaya Tatyana

Уважаемая Ирина! Прочитала вашу статью - итересно, познавательно, но не получила ответа на вопрос : почему, всетаки, степень креативности у людей такая разная? Окружающая среда? Образование и воспитание или есть еще какие-то факторы, влияющие на развитие креативности у людей? С уважением, Поплавская Т.Н.
Comments: 1

Poplavskaya Tatyana

Уважаемая Ирина! Прочитала вашу статью - итересно, познавательно, но не получила ответа на вопрос : почему, всетаки, степень креативности у людей такая разная? Окружающая среда? Образование и воспитание или есть еще какие-то факторы, влияющие на развитие креативности у людей? С уважением, Поплавская Т.Н.
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.