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COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH TO SENIOUR STUDENTS’ EDUCATION AS A WAY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF IDEAS OF SUSTAINABILITY

Автор Доклада: 
Shyyan T.
Награда: 
COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH TO SENIOUR STUDENTS’ EDUCATION AS A WAY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF IDEAS OF SUSTAINABILITY

УДК 37.034 + 371.214.19

COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH TO SENIOUR STUDENTS’ EDUCATION AS A WAY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF IDEAS OF SUSTAINABILITY

Tetyana Shyyan, associate professor
Mykolaiv Suchomlynsky National University

The article deals with the ways of introduction of competence-based approach into the educational process of secondary schools; the courses offered to senior students, teaching methodology and their impact on sustainability are analyzed.
Key words: sustainability, education, competences, ecological education.

У статті аналізуються шляхи впровадження компетентнісно-орієнтованого підходу у навчально-виховний процес старшокласників з метою стійкого розвитку їхньої особистості; аналізується освітній потенціал навчальних дисциплін, які пропонуються старшокласникам та методика їх викладання у загальноосвітньому навчальному закладі.
Ключові слова: стійкий розвиток, навчально-виховний процес, компетенції, екологічна освіта.

Introduction. Dramatic growth of ecological, social and economic problems determined by ecological crisis, unfavourable demographic situation, poverty and terrorism at the end of XX century have made it necessary to change the patterns of human development. To meet the requirements of the day there appeared a conception of sustainable development that would harmonize economic, social progress and nature conservation. Education (of all levels, types and forms) has been recognized as a key instrument for promoting the ideas of sustainable development by the UN Economic and Social Council [1].

The adopted Strategy was mostly aimed at expanding and further development of ecological education on the basis of complex approach. It means that ecological knowledge and skills should be incorporated in the educational system. The precondition of the effective solution of this task in our country is the recognition of ideas of harmonious development as underlying, which is reflected in the Conception of Ecological Education in Ukraine [2].

Main part. The criterion of achievements and problems of schooling in Ukraine and, at the same time, the foundation for the education for sustainable development is a competence-based approach which has been adopted to assess students’ academic performance in leading countries of European Union and has been defined in the National Doctrine of the development of Education in Ukraine in XXI century. [3]. The core essence of competence-based approach is to shift focus from the process of formation knowledge and skills onto that of competences. Competence-based approach complies with the demand for modernization of education in Ukraine and is aimed at production of students’ own patterns of behavior, their approbation in different situation, adaptation to individual peculiarities of reasoning and perception. Competence-based approach integrates internal and external components of behavior and reflects what can be described not only as “know how”, but “have ability and desire to implement it in a real situation”. So, the focus here is on the activity component, which is, unlike traditional, knowledge component, does not involve accumulating separate knowledge and skills but acquiring complex procedures of their application in solving practical, real-life tasks.

Competence is a part and parcel of responsibility: the first implies the ability to make decisions and be responsible for their realization in different spheres of your life activity; the latter has certain limits, which are determined by the scope of direct influence. In other words, a person can be responsible only for something of immediate influence.

Speaking of education for sustainable development scholars first and foremost keep in mind ecological education. Further analysis brings about antagonisms which characterize the real state of high school ecological education in Ukraine. According to the Strategy [1], ideas of sustainable development should be introduced to all academic programs and courses. Meanwhile teachers claim that ecological education is still scattered throughout different school subjects. As for compulsory subjects only students of the 8-th forms in comprehensive schools are acquainted with the notion “sustainable development” when they discuss problems of rational use of natural resources in the course of “Physical Geography of Ukraine”.
Ukrainian students acquire general ecological knowledge in the course of Biology, Chemistry and Science. They can easily characterize global problems (Geography), some aspects of industrial use of natural resources and nature conservation (Chemistry, Science).

Ecological information is represented on different levels: global, regional, local. However, students do not correlate acquired ecological information with their ability to influence the situation. Students can only influence their own actions and behavior, which have to do with their way of living – and consequently – be responsible for them. They are practically not able to resist industrial pollution or poaching etc.

In this respect an important provision of the Strategy is that due to education sustainable development turns from the philosophy to the instrument of everyday life, becomes connected with the responsibility of every citizen. It has been proved by special studies [4] that although there is broadening and deepening of students’ ecological knowledge from class to class, there takes place this correlation: the deeper students are aware of global character of ecological problems, the less they feel their personal involvement in them and their ability to influence them “unless they are ministers of ecology”.

If we turn to our programs again, we’ll see that in the course of Geography, for example, students of the 9-th form touch upon such notions as “standard of living”, “consumption of goods and products”, “consumption of services” (within the topic “Social sphere”): these are the topics which fall directly within students’ competencies as for sustainable development. Still students are expected to “reveal the content of social politics of the country, …to forecast structural changes in the social sphere of Ukraine in market economy” [5: 165], but not to think in what way they could be responsible for their way of life and way of consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to complement the content of ecological education with information of ecologically weighed consumption, ability and necessity to regulate their needs, with positive examples of ecological problem-solving on regional or local levels. It’s necessary to encourage, organize and maintain actions aimed at collection and recycling of secondary raw materials, cutting down on domestic energy consumption. Such kind of activity is important not only from economical and ecological, but pedagogical point of view, because students have possibility to put their convictions into practice, exercising their abidance of some rules and norms, confirming their position and finally displaying their competence in real situations.

In the context of our study we distinguish the following aspects of competence-based education: activity and value-formation approach. The formation of students’ values of sustainable development is complicated not only by social and economic reasons but by pedagogical reasons, among which are academic and methodological support. Hence we should draw attention to the methods of education (teaching and upbringing).
Introduction of education for sustainable development stipulates the shift of accents from methods aimed at transmission of information to implementation of active methods, which allow students to search and find, to collaborate with others on the way. They are interactive, group and project technologies which best realize competence-based education. These are discussions, multimedia presentations, small group projects, excursions. They involve students’ autonomy, foster the actualization of their emotional sphere, which in its turn is effective for the formation of motivation, attitudes and values.

Conclusion. On the basis of certain achievements in the system of Ukrainian education and with a glance at revealed antagonisms it is possible to define the urgent issues to be solved: to update the content and the process of teacher training, to develop integrated courses, that would not be limited by the transmission of the information but involve changes of models of behavior, attitudes, stereotyping, educational and methodological literature for teachers and students. Implementation of ideas of sustainability requires constant spiritual work and self-perfection.

Reference

  • 1) Организация Объединенных Наций Экономический и Социальный Совет. Европейская экономическая комиссия. Стратегия ЕЭК ООН для образования в интересах устойчивого развития. Материалы Совещания высокого уровня представителей министерств охраны окружающей среды и образования [Електронний ресурс]. – Вільнюс, 2005. – Режим доступу: www.unece.org/env/documents/2005/cep/ac.13/cep.ac.13.2005.2.r.pdf  
  • 2) Концепція екологічної освіти України // Екологія і ресурси: Зб. наук. праць. – Укр. ін-т дослідж. навколиш. середовища і ресурсів. – К.: Вид-во "Сталь", № 4. – 2002. – С. 5-25.
  • 3) Освіта України. – 2001.- № 1.- с.22-25.
  • 4) Формування екологічної компетентності школярів: наук. -метод. посібник / Н. А. Пустовіт, О. Л. Пруцакова, Л. Д. Руденко, О. О. Колонькова,. – К.: „Педагогічна думка, 2008. – 64 с.
  • 5) Програми для загальноосвітніх навчальних закладів. Географія 5-11 класи. – К.: Шкільний світ, 2001. – 224 с.
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