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RENOVATION EXPERIENCE OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN DONBAS INDUSTRIAL CITIES (BY THE EXAMPLE OF MAKEYEVKA)

RENOVATION EXPERIENCE OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN DONBAS INDUSTRIAL CITIES (BY THE EXAMPLE OF MAKEYEVKA)
Chernysh Marina

Nikolay Sholukh, professor, doctor of architecture, full professor

Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ukraine

Conference participant

The paper deals with the analyze of the identification experience and protection  of cultural and historical environment of Donbas industrial cities and feasible methods of their renovation. The principle trends in design of industrial settlements formed not far from the large industrial complexes of Donbas region have been considered. The importance of protection and renovation not only individual objects of cultural heritage but also the historical environment of industrial areas on the whole have been read. The paper has given some important scientific and practical proposals and recommendations to protect and restore cultural and historical environment of industrial cities.

Keywords:industrial complexes, industrial villages and settlements, constructivism epoch, cultural and historical environment, identification and renovation.

Setting of a problem and its connection with important scientific and social problems.  The industrial cities has accumulated significant expanse of historical and cultural values ​​being rather important for the society from various points of view, including social and educational ones. The identification and protection is one of the priorities of policy trends of Ukraine in the field of renovation of cultural and historical environment of an industrial city. The architecture of an advance-quard of the 20s-30s year epoch is of significant importance into historical and cultural heritage. In particular, they are similar both separate buildings and entire industrial settlements having formed around mining and metallurgical industrial complexes. These groups can include such unique from the point of view of architecture and urban planning settlements as Novo-Tchaykino formed near the group of Tchaykino mines, as well as unique in this kind, the settlement  Contemporary Colony not far from the Kirov Metallurgical Plant. The first industrial settlements are considered to be the settlements of Yasinovka By-Product Coke Plant and Makeyevka By-Product Coke Plant situated immediately not far the By-Product Coke Plants of Makeyevka, which are not less interesting examples.    From the point of view of the urban development image ideas of 30s year period, the settlement Novo- Butovka, which, unfortunately, was only partially implemented, is worthy of special attention. Each kind of settlements differs by unique architecture and planning structure, in many of them one can  trace back echoes of bright and advanced ideas of the constructivism epoch. However, in terms and conditions of complicated social and economic changes associated with the chaotic building, man-made pollution, the reduced public interest to the cultural values ​​of the past, including the architecture, a lot of objects of historical and cultural heritage have been destroyed, and sometimes forever. It leads to the fact that an industrial city loses its face, one of the important conditions of historical continuity – binding between the past and the present. The paper is devoted to the consideration of its rather important scientific and social problem and to the search of its solutions

The analysis of the latest publications and elaborations on the research topic.  For a long time in Ukraine, as well as in many other countries of post-Soviet space, they did not pay much attention to the problem of protection and recovery of the cultural and historical environment of industrial areas.  As far as the  cultural and historical environment of Donbas, it is considered to be one of the least investigated spaces, so-called "white spots" in the history of this abundant with  historical heritage of the industrial region in Ukraine. Nevertheless, in the  number of papers of national and foreign researchers there were some problems dealing with the history of old Yuzovka. In general, we can say that the majority of publications are devoted to development  of Hughes' period and practically there are no papers which would have been devoted to the problem of protection the historical and cultural environment  of other industrial settlemns of the region. As far as the other industrial cities of Donbas is concerned , except Donetsk, they were ignored. Just only lately, the researcher of the center Historical - Architectural Studies "Architectural Heritage " of the Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (Gayvoronsky Ye.A., Gubanov A.V., Sholukh N.V., Boroznov S.A., etc) have been carried out investigations on study of such towns as Makeyevka, Donetsk, Slavyansk, Zuevka etc. Some problems are partially represented in one of the design of the center "Development of historical and architectural base map of Makeyevka and protection zones of architectural monuments” published recently. The given paper has revealed and described the number of historical regions at the territory of Makeyevka, the recommendations on protection of cultural heritage in these regions have been given. However, the studies  directly devoted to the problem of renovation of cultural and historical environment of industrial areas of the town have not been carried out.

In this connection, the unsolved part of the problem devoted to the paper is the study of renovation experience of the cultural and historical environment on the territory of  the whole  workers' settlements formed in large industrial complexes such as Yasinovka By-Product Coke Plant, Makeyevka By-Product Coke Plant, Kirov Metallurgical plant, Tchaykino mining complex, etc.

The analysis of detection experience, protection, and renovation of cultural and historical environment on the territories of Makeyevka abutting to the large industrial complexes.

Development of Makeyevka, as manyas other industrial towns of Donbas, began with workers' settlements (so-called " colonies"), which were built around industrial enterprises (metallurgical and coking plants, coal mines, construction plants, etc.). During the 20s and 30s years of twentieth century, the advanced urban development ideas of advance-quard architecture were embodied. Great number of residential and public buildings of various social trends was being built. A lot of built objects are unique by their functional and planning features because they were designed for the specific conditions of industrial workers' settlements [3].

For example, settlements of Yasinovka By-Product Coke Plant, Makeyevka By-Product Coke Plant located not far from Yasinovka and Makeyevka coking plants of Kirov district of Makeevka are distinguished by  unique quarterly planning structure (Fig. 1).

а) b)

Fig.1 Diagram of general plan of workers' settlements located near the Makeevka coking plants: a) the settlement of Yasinovka By-Product Coke Plant; b) the settlement of Makeyevka By-Product Coke Plant.

A lot of residential buildings in the perimeter housing development are distinguished by abundant architectural and decorative plastics. Special attention is paid to the saturation of  building facades by architectural details, balconies, bay windows, which were not used in the standard construction of the years [1]. The architecture of residential buildings has acquired a monumental appearance image and volume enlargement. Examples of such kind of housing development can be complexes on Deputatskaya St, Lenina St and Novaya St, etc. (Fig 2).

a)       b)

Fig. 2. Examples of housing development of workers' industrial settlements: a) a residential building on Sovietskaya St in the village of Yasinovka By-Product Coke Plant; b) a residential  building on Parizhskoy Kommuny St in the village of Makeyevka By-Product Coke Plant.

No lesser cultural and historical value are settlements, which in contrast to the previously mentioned, have multiple vector, radiation planning structure this displays bright urban development ideas of the constructivism epoch[1]. Much obviously, it is represented in  Carbide  Colony settlement occupying the part of Central Municipal and Gornyatsky Districts of Makeyevka, the village of Novo - Chaykino constructed for groups of Chaykino mines.

The Carbide Colony settlement has non-typical, fan tracery planning system with perimeter housing development of residential and public buildings which was the basis for the following formation of social infrastructure in this part of the town (Fig. 3). Another of not less important feature of the settlement is differentiated road and transport network with maximum taking into account functional assignment of the objects [ 1].

a)    b)

Fig. 3 Workers' industrial settlement  “Carbide Colony” situated near the carbide factory: a) general layout of the settlement; b) a former kindergarten on the Pantchenko St.

     We  would also like to say about not less interesting settlement Novo - Chaykino (Fig. 4)  which has an extreme branching, radial and circular, fan tracery, planning structure. This settlement represents the comprehensive approach to the housing development organization, the idea of ​​a garden-cities of E. Howard . The core of compositional and spatial structure of the village is an old refuse heap with streets and driveways in radial manner around it. Residential buildings of the settlement is represented mainly by one-store two-apartments houses designed by the famous Kharkov architect V.I. Pushkaryov. The houses are considered as one of the best examples of the implementation of economical housing for the workers of the Donbas. The settlement is recommended to obtain the status of an architectural monument . [1]

a) b)

Fig. 4 The workers' village Novo - Chaykino situated near Chaykino mine: a) general layout of the settlement was designed by an architect V.I. Pushkaryov; b) contemporary layout of the settlement.

Contemporary Colony settlement is paid special attention (Fig. 5) situated near the Kirov metallurgical plant.  The settlement is formed in the early 20s - 30s years of the last century, in its planning structure and design of  residential and public buildings there are traces of constructivism style.

a) b)

Fig. 5 The workers' village Contemporary Colony situated near the Kirov Metallurgical Plant: a) general layout of the village; b) residential doctors' building on  Glinky St.

The planning structure of the settlement is characterized with three-radial diagram of streets arrangement and unique architectural design of residential and public buildings. The housing development of the settlement is represented by the series of standard design of an architect V. K. Trotsenko by three main streets: Papanina St, Kirova St, Glinky St [1]. The settlement Contemporary Colony is realization of development idea of a workers' settlement with housing development not only with building complexes but also with public infrastructure.

Some scientific and practical offers and recommendations for protection and renovation of the cultural and historical environment of an industrial town.

The processes of detection, protection and renovation of cultural and historical environment have to concern not only individual objects but also the historical environment as a whole. In contemporary conditions of development of industrial towns and cities, there is an acute problem of harmonization of the new architecture and preserved historical housing development. For renovation of industrial areas has to stipulate to preserve not only the declared monuments of architecture and urban development but also the objects which can receive this status in the future. It also deals with industrial buildings and structures that have been protected in these areas and can represent not less cultural value compared with revealed architectural monuments.

The next important step, the authors would like to pay attention to is fact that it is important to identify and protect not only historically valuable development,  monuments of architecture and urban development but also the background, low valuable development which is an integral part of the cultural and historical heritage. The background development protection will permit to renovate the cultural and historical environment in general in industrial areas but not only in the separate local zones.

The most important rule of protection and renovation of cultural and historical environment should consider the planning structure recovery of industrial settlements, which, as it was above-mentioned, can represent the progressive ideas of constructivism. Especially as the planning of  some industrial settlements can be the principle object of the protection of historical and cultural heritage of the regions.

The methods of protection and renovation of cultural and historical environment in the considerable regions have to provide complete identification of rehabilitation elements of streets and lanes placed in the period of formation of initial industrial settlements. From the historical and cultural, ecological, social and from a lot of other points of view, it should be pointed out as  the exceptionally important actions directed to the problems identification. Implementation of the given actions acquires peculiar actuality, bearing in mind, that the areas were subjected to technogenic attacks stipulated by proximity of the large-sized production complexes.

Conclusion: The paper reviewed and analyzed the experience of identification, protection and renovation of cultural and historical environment of Makeyevka industrial settlements adjacent directly to large-sized production complexes. Great number of bright ideas of the constructivism epoch is represented in the planning structure of workers' settlements and also in architectural conceptions of their separate buildings. Unfortunately, the significant part of objects of residential and public development of the municipal industrial settlement is in the poor condition, and some have been completely destroyed. However, the housing development of res industrial settlements being formed during some historical periods is a unique one and is of the most significance in the preservation process and renovation of cultural and historical environment of industrial towns and cities.

 By the example of an analytical review of the objects of architecture and urban development of industrial settlement of Makeyevka, one can conclude of necessity for further research in the field with a view of consequent rehabilitation and preservation of the cultural and historical environment in Donbas industrial towns and cities.

References:

1. Development of Historical and Architectural Base Map of Makeevka and Protection Zones of Architectural Monuments: Report on the Establishment of Scientific and Design Products under the Contract No. 109-01 AU dated back to 03.11.2009. In 2 parts. Section 1. Historical and architectural base map of Makeevka / Gayvoronsky, E.A., Gubanov, A.V., Sholukh, N.V., Boroznov, S.A. - Makeyevka :  Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture 2011. - p222 .

2 . Aleshin, V.E. Town Planning and Construction Search in the Ukraine in 1920s – beginning of 1930s years [text] / Aleshin, V.E. / / Construction and Architecture. - 1985 . - No. 10 . – pp 24 - 27 .

3 . Vergeles, A.V. Peculiarities of Urban Development of Donbass in the period of 1917 -1941s years [text] : master's dissertation (Architecture): 18.00.01 / Vergeles, A.V. M., 1991 . - p186 

4 . Bogorad, D.I. District Planning of Donbas Nowadays [text] / D.I. Bogorad / / Architecture of the USSR . - 1957 . - No. 4 . – pp 23 - 25.

5 . Vysochenkov, V.D. Designing Work and Housing Development by Settlements in Donbas.  [text] / V.D. Vysochenko, L.A. Strelets. //  Industrial Construction and Civil Engineering  - Moscow Ugletekhizdat , 1956 . - Issue 2 . - pp 134-141

6. Sholukh, N.V. Ideological and Humanistic, and Compositional and Planning Aspects of  Industrial Settlements Formation in 1920s – 1930s years in  Makeyevka [text] / N.V. Sholukh, A.V. Gubanov // Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture - 2012. - 4 ( 96). - pp12-19.

Comments: 4

Yupatkina Nadia

Данная статья интересная и актуальна для промышленных городов. Приведенные примеры и выводы говорят о высокой профессиональной подготовки автора.Заслуживает высокой оценки и может претендовать на призовое место.

Elena Artamonova

Interesting and informative article: intensive coal mining and smelting in Donbas has led to severe multi-faceted damage to the local environment and residential comfort…. But education, social order, and competent builders can bring about success.

Kissamedin Guljan Mustahkyzy

Проблема промышленных городов, связанные с загрязнением окружающей среды представляют опасность для здоровья людей и неблагоприятные условия для сохранения памятников архитектуры, которых большое количество в приведенных материалах с яркими идеями эпохи конструктивизма ​​в планировочной структуры рабочих поселках, где сам автор говорит, что значительная часть объектов жилого и общественного значения в промышленной зоне находится в плохом состоянии, а некоторые были полностью разрушены. В этой связи европейские институты, как Икомос и другие фонды проводят огромную работу по ревалоризации восстановлении историко-культурной ценности, а в данном случае и идентичности промыщленных городов Донбасса.

Kissamedin Guljan Mustahkyzy

Статья интересная, очень познавательная, сочетает в себе аспекты истории и теории архитектуры. Заслуживает высокой оценки и может претендовать на призовое место
Comments: 4

Yupatkina Nadia

Данная статья интересная и актуальна для промышленных городов. Приведенные примеры и выводы говорят о высокой профессиональной подготовки автора.Заслуживает высокой оценки и может претендовать на призовое место.

Elena Artamonova

Interesting and informative article: intensive coal mining and smelting in Donbas has led to severe multi-faceted damage to the local environment and residential comfort…. But education, social order, and competent builders can bring about success.

Kissamedin Guljan Mustahkyzy

Проблема промышленных городов, связанные с загрязнением окружающей среды представляют опасность для здоровья людей и неблагоприятные условия для сохранения памятников архитектуры, которых большое количество в приведенных материалах с яркими идеями эпохи конструктивизма ​​в планировочной структуры рабочих поселках, где сам автор говорит, что значительная часть объектов жилого и общественного значения в промышленной зоне находится в плохом состоянии, а некоторые были полностью разрушены. В этой связи европейские институты, как Икомос и другие фонды проводят огромную работу по ревалоризации восстановлении историко-культурной ценности, а в данном случае и идентичности промыщленных городов Донбасса.

Kissamedin Guljan Mustahkyzy

Статья интересная, очень познавательная, сочетает в себе аспекты истории и теории архитектуры. Заслуживает высокой оценки и может претендовать на призовое место
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