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Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Ukraine
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In the article the factorization of input data to identify the actual semantic structure of psychological characteristics of police officers for juvenile offenders, measured using the semantic differential method. Also during this phase of the implementation was done to minimize the output array of empirical data to the level of a compact and convenient representation of the effective further mathematical and statistical calculations, and on this basis - significant psychological generalizations. Content, generalized psychological variables that are included in the list of factorscalled and interpret them based on the content of the psychological scales, which formed its structure and meaning. Checked the challenges of significant differences in the level of expression of personal factors police officers, differentiated by the criteria of «professional unit" and "professional experience".
Keywords:factor analysis, semantic differential, psychological scale, police officers, juvenile delinquents.
The aim of our study was to examine the social and psychological attitudes of police officers in relation to juvenile offenders. In the tests involved 120 police officers, which we believe are relevant to young offenders in their professional activities: 40 - criminal police for Children, 40 - employees of the investigation, 40 - police inspectors. In a prior study we determined that law enforcement officials share of juvenile offenders in their psychological qualities into 3 categories depending on the severity of the offense : administrative , violent , selfish and violent . 
The system settings of the individual in relation to the significant ones for him is his value judgments that are classified consciousness scheme logic dichotomies (pleasant - unpleasant, dangerous - safe, etc.). Emerging bipolar estimates can be measured quantitatively by the method of semantic differential. In our opinion, this method is very informative to examine social attitudes police officers to juvenile offenders. Semantic differential helps to see the image of the estimated object that is in the mind of the recipient. Any perceived individual object (object, image object name, and object) gives him a certain reaction. Method of structuring perception of an object in three areas: active object, its power (potentiality), related to him by the respondent. If diagnostic perception of police officers minors to see evaluation of these indicators each police officer. Semantic differential used by us as diagnostic tool concepts of police officers juvenile offenders.
In our case, semantic differential consisted of 54 bipolar psychological scales, which were divided into 3 groups: cognitive, affective and behavioral components (by force, attitude, and activity) to 18 each. Employee’s police had to choose a side in bipolar dichotomy and evaluate it on 7-point scale (3 to 3, respectively) depending on the severity. We emphasize that the sign of the dichotomy we are not treated to deliberately choose not to offer police officer towards negative or positive.
In the first stage of the statistical analysis was conducted factorization input data in order to identify the actual semantic structure of psychological characteristics of police officers, measured using the semantic differential method. Also during this phase of the implementation was done to minimize the output array of empirical data to the level of a compact and convenient representation of the effective further mathematical and statistical calculations, and on this basis - a significant psychological generalization. For this purpose, we used factor analysis.
The purpose of factor analysis in this study were:
1.) Verification factor model of personality characteristics of police officers by reducing the dimensionality of the measured parameters to a smaller number of independent factors. An integral personality factors determine the nature and characteristics of meaningful social attitudes of police officers on the individual juvenile offender.
2.) Calculate the factorial study estimates for each of the selected analyzes of integrated factors as the basis for:
a) comparative analysis of the level of severity of personality factors in police officers, depending on the unit which carried out their professional activities (Criminal Police for Minors (CPM), investigators, local policeman (LP)) and work experience (let's give a name: Small (0 to 3 years), medium (4 to 10 years), large (over 10 years));
b) analyze the impact of service and units which serve as police officers on their personal characteristics (factors).
Factorization method of Principal Components, followed Varimax normalized matrix of psychological scales, measured using the semantic differential method, yielded unequivocally interpreted factor model of personality characteristics of police officers (see Table 1.).
Factor model of personality characteristics of police officers
Insult - comfort
Panic - appeasement
listlessness - determination
Trouble - ease
loose – charge
Rude - praise
Lack of interest-interest
Ignorant - educated
Hate - love
Not to trust - trust
Cruelly treated - pity
Evil - hearted
Contempt - esteem
Disorganize - organize
Justify punish -
Feud - friends
Anxiety - serenity
Disturbance - calming
Defile - educate
Neuemnost - balance
Blame - approve
Limit - solving
Prevent - support
Distort - fix
Maladjusted - adapted
Scare - attract
Ignore - care
Careless – binding
Heartless - benevolent
Die-hard - witted
Frivolous - serious
Hypocritical - fair
Ruthless - humane
Reckless - rationalistic
Craven - fearless
Confidence - confidence
Passive - active
Lack of initiative -goal-oriented
Impulsive - neimpulsivny
Anger - complacency
Factor solution with simple structure and minimal loss of initial information (completeness 82.7% factorization, informative factor 1 - 15.0%, factor 2 - 15.0%, factor 3 - 14.8%, factor 4 - 10.6%, factor 5 - 8.5%, a factor 6 - 7.4%, factor 7 - 6.1%, factor 8 - 5.3%) allowed access to the semantic analysis and interpretation of factors which form factor model of personality characteristics of police officers.
Content, summarizing the psychological variables that are included in the list of factors andcalled we interpret them based on the content of the psychological scales, which formed its structure and meaning as:
1. "Empathy and caring" police officer;
2. "The transformation of relations" police officer;
3. "Social support" police officer;
4. "Social influence and control" police officer;
5. "Multifunctionality profession" police officer;
6. "Dedication" police officer;
7. "Virtue" police officer;
8. "Prudence and balance" police officers.
The next stage involved the statistical analysis of test tasks for significant differences in the level of expression of personal factors police officers, differentiated by the criteria of "professional unit" and "professional experience". For this purpose, were calculated factor scores for each selection in the factorization of integral personality variable police officers, who later were compared using non-parametric method for directional differences alternatives Kruskal-Wallis Test and non-parametric method for directed alternatives Jonckheere-Terpstra Test [1, 2].
During the statistical analysis of differences in severity of personal factors of policemen on the criterion of "professional unit" found their authentic nature with regard to the third (p<0,01), second (p<0,01) and fifth (p<0,05), personal factors (see Table. 2).
Differences in the level of expression of personal factors police officers with different experience depending on the direction of their professional activity
The averagerank values of factor estimates policemen
Tabular data can be noted that significantly higher levels of expression of the third personal factor, which we interpret as a factor of "social support" police officers, workers demonstrate CPM. This factor explains the immediate professional duty of the police department. Doing this work explains their possible commitment, benevolent attitude towards juvenile offenders and assistance in dealing with difficult issues or situations in which they got. Ability to efficiently use their time to prove it through the ability to long and hard to do their job, to keep their professional responsibilities. Also evident among workers CPM and unwillingnessinspireminoroffenderssocially recognized and approved standards; they acquire social values, moral and legal norms, personality traits and patterns of behavior accepted in society.
Significantly lower expression of the third personal factor characterized by workers investigating unit. The lowest level of expression of this factor found in the home. Explain the possible causes in the following factors: the responsibilities of this subdivision do not apply directly juveniles made within prescribed in the Regulations concerning the work of Internal Affairs of Ukraine to combat juvenile delinquency. In their professional duties, include assistance to other law enforcement departments, in particular, such as CPM and investigating authorities in criminal and preventive activities and to take control of juvenile offenders. Likely explanation for this may be that the results of the empirical value of H is between the critical p=0,01 and p=0,001. So P<0.01.
Obviously noteworthy pattern was found with respect to other personal factors, which we interpret as a factor of "transformation relations" police officers. Thus, the significantly higher level of expression was found in investigation staff. This explains their direct impact on the individual juvenile offender, such as working closely with them and juveniles committed the offenses, namely the implementation of a comprehensive, full and impartial inquiry and investigation in criminal cases for offenses. Their professionalism is that they can easily establish contacts, build understanding. Disclosed equanimity, serenity in dealing with complex issues, rationality, avoiding conflicts personnel department investigation law enforcement agencies to enforce their orders and regulations. Possible manifestations of specific attitudes of police officers to juvenile offenders, namely suspicion related to situational, topical significance, evil, devious intentions for juvenile offenders, the penetration of mutual hostility and hatred for juvenile offenders, aggressive attitude towards the behavior of adolescents;neglect interests minors, arrogant, conflict in interpersonal relationships.
Significantly, lower level of expression of other personal factors were found in the house and employees CPM it is the lowest. Likely explanation of this fact, there are differences in the performance of professional duties CPM the previous subsection. CPM staff directly involved juvenile offenders: are prevention work, educational, eliminate the causes and conditions that contributed to the commission of the offense child, and employees of the investigation dealing with offenses committed. The explanation of this fact could be that the results of the empirical value of H is between the critical p=0,01 and p=0,001. So P<0.01.
In addition, the level of statistical significance of differences in documented severity fifth personality factor, which we interpret as a factor of "multifunctionality profession" police officers. Tabular data allow to state that the house he was the highest. Similar to previous cases describe the likely causes of the identified patterns should pay attention to the responsibilities of the department. Workers unit HOUSE involved, together with other agencies and departments of the Interior in detecting, preventing, combating administrative offenses and crimes, as well as in solving crimes committed in the territory of an administrative district, they marked by restraint, endurance and balance. Workers unit HOUSE inherent presence of mind, fairness and impartiality in decision-making, conflict avoidance and self-mastery. In cases involving juvenile offenders, police are trying to decide in favor of teenagers or those that help them in the future. They lack bias, leaning against the right, objective attitude toward juvenile offenders and offenses committed by them.
Below the level of expression of this factor are characterized by workers CPM, and its lowest level of expression was found in investigation and workers unit of inquiry that cannot explain the intense expression of the characteristics inherent in the employee unit home. The explanation of this fact could be that the results of the empirical value of H is between the critical p=0,05 and p=0,01. So P<0.05.
Statistical analysis of differences in severity of personal factors of policemen on the criterion of «professional experience» allowed to fix their authentic nature with regard to the sixth (p<0,001) and first (p<0,05) personal factors (see Table. 3).
Differences in the level of expression of personal factors police officers of various units depending on the length of their professional activity
Experiencean employee MIA
Mean valuesof factorestimatespolicemen
From4 to 10 years
Over 10 years
Tabulated data show that the value of the sixth ("dedication") and the first personal factors ("compassion and care") significantly decreased proportion to length of professional police officers. In other words, the greater the experience of professional police officers, the lower the intensity of the personal factors they observed.
Probable cause of the detected pattern is that with increasing length of service-blunted emotions on the part of police officers for juvenile offenders. Views on issues of juvenile offenders less emotive. Tips are more sensible, rational without empathy and compassion. Manifested firmness in making decisions.
With increasing length of service in the police officers formed certain beliefs from which they do not give up and do not change even under pressure. The inherent strength of character and mind, strength of mind, helping to achieve the goal in spite of obstacles. Police traced the desire to get rid of the problems associated with working with juvenile offenders.
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