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THE PHENOMENON OF ABBREVIATIONS AND APOCOPES THROUGH THEIR FORMATION PERSPECTIVE

 THE PHENOMENON OF ABBREVIATIONS AND APOCOPES THROUGH THEIR FORMATION PERSPECTIVE
Zaika Bogdana, postgraduate student

Sumy State University, Ukraine

Conference participant

The evolution of society influences the language development not only by nomination extension, but also in a significant speech condition change. There appeared a new communication rule - the more important the message is, the greater its redundancy. Sometimes it is necessary to drop some language elements and how it will result in general message quality. Abbreviations and apocopes are the units which help to avoid the speech redundancy in different ways.

Keywords:apocop, derivation, speech redundancy, acronym, spelling violation

 

The question of the abbreviation formation conditions is a burning issue for many linguists. It’s necessary to give an appropriate for to imagine the possibilities abbreviation gives and to predict further tendencies in their development.

Many scientists tend to explain such popularity in the perspective of the fast life tempo .This explanation is a bit subjective since it does not take into account the linguistic nature of the abbreviations. It is the common knowledge that abbreviations in the English language appeared as a form of borrowings’ assimilation. Due to this the foreign words pronunciation became closer to the English native phonetic system with its monosyllables. For example, old French desporter – to entertain shortened in English and became a word sport. It changed not only the sound form, but also the meaning of this word.

It is important to note that the society needs the mass nomination at this stage of social development [1]. That is why semantic derivation, borrowings and abbreviations together with the traditional methods of word formation - derivation and composition, are playing the important role in the vocabulary enrichment.

However, the evolution of society influences the language development not only by nomination extension, but also in a significant speech condition change. It is vividly in the information flow increasing, the communication means development results in the particular graphic shortenings appearance. There appeared a new communication rule - the more important the message is, the greater its redundancy.

These above mentioned factors connect abbreviations with the live speech conditions. They can explain why it is sometimes necessary to drop some language elements and how it will result in general message quality.

However, the modern languages ​​observation shows that the abbreviations are widely used in all spheres of the human activities they are particularly connected with specific branches of these activities (I mean their professional level). The abbreviations exist often in the professional area. The everyday close contact of experts results on the long words and word combination replacement by more easy structures [3]. Such abbreviations and shortenings may exist in a particular area, but in some cases (radar, telescope, etc.) they become the part of the colloquial language.

In different areas different structural types of shortenings are used. For example, the routine conversation presupposes the usage of the apocopes and word combinations than abbreviations.

Apocopes are peculiar for the all slang types (IT, newspapers). For example, ad frequently appears in the newspaper pages and TV programs as the shortened word advertisement and admin is used instead of administrator. For example: These ads are too long to watch them all my life. Hey, somebody call the admin or I’ll try to connect the server by myself.

Abbreviations are often technical terms, names of groups and organizations. Abbreviations are used more often than the terms they’re describing: PM (project manager), PC (personal computer), ETA (estimated time of arrival).

Acronyms are used not as often as abbreviations do. Restrictions on their usage are connected with the head word denotative meaning. Thus, the units RAM (random - access memory), ROM (read - only memory) are used in the IT area only; HIM (health information manager), MOM (milk of magnesia) are used in medicine.

The usage of newly created constructions is quite popular among the brand names in sports, fashion [1]. For example, the well-known brand Adidas is the result of the first and last name connection - Adi Dassler, who is the company founder. It is well-known for its sports clothing and footwear.

The shortenings existence and usage as well as the existence of any other linguistic unit connected with the range of modern linguistic problems. The graphic form is more important for the shortenings than for other language units. The most striking feature is the spelling violation, which predetermines the existence of multiple spelling variations: one shortening can be written by the upper and lower case letters, with dots between the letters and without them [2]. Sometimes dots in shortenings are used to distinguish them from the homonymous words: fig. = figure. Dot is used not to confuse this shortening with the word fig.

Specific features of shortenings structure and spelling creates the possibility for the new implementation ways in speech. Many of the shortenings that have fixed graphic form can be read in different ways.

One more feature is that they can possess take different grammatical forms and are sensitive to their changes. For example, the category of gender: it is a common knowledge that there is no such category in English. Nevertheless it’s possible to mark the gender with the help of lexical means – personal pronouns (a cat, he-cat, she-cat). Referring to the humans it’s possible to add names to abbreviation not to abuse somebody. There was a movie G.I. Jane which (1997). The title describes the female soldier, while male one could be named G.I. Joe.

Talking about shortenings we can’t be absolutely positive about the nature of their appearance. But we are able to distinguish them on the linguistic basis and follow the regularity formation.

 

References

1.      Adams, V. An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation. London: Longman, 1973. – 230 p.

2.      Pichkur A.I, Treshcheva M.S. Computer jargon «Usertalk» as a linguistic phenomenon / / Language and Culture. - Samara, 1999. - P.69-73.

3.      Skrebnev Y.M. English Stylistics Fundamentals. - M.​​, 2003. – 221 p.

Comments: 5

Nasrullaeva Nafisa

Уважаемая Богдана. Мне очень приятно за ваш положительный отзыв о моей статье. Благодарю Вас. Да, я действительно занимаюсь всесторонним изучением английских фразеологических единиц и это доставляет мне удовольствие. Я также прочла ваш доклад и скажу откровенно, что вы очень точно анализируете материал и у вас большие перспективы в вашей области исследования. С уважением, Насруллаева Нафиса.

Tetyana Monakhova

Уважаемая Богдана, с большим интересом прочла Ваш доклад. Аббревиация, ставшая столь популярной моделью в ХХ веке, продолжает оставаться продуктивной базой для лингвистических исследований. В частности, очень активно развиваются аббревиатуры в речи Интернет-пользователей. Скажите, пожалуйста, планируете ли Вы более подробно останавливаться на особенностях "виртуальных" аббревиатур? :) С уважением, Татьяна Монахова.

Zaika Bogdana

Уважаемая Татьяна, спасибо за проявленный интерес к моему докладу. Что касается виртуальных аббревиатур, то здесь можно смело утверждать об огромном исследовательском потенциале этой сферы. Со стремительным развитием информационных технологий появляются все новые и новые термины и аббревиатуры, которые можно рассматривать с точки зрения как лингвистики, так и социальной детерминированности языка. С уважением, Богдана Заика

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Богдана, Ваш доклад четко струтурирован, логически изложен и заслуживает на внимание. Желаю Вам удачи в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением, Суворова Татьяна.

Zaika Bogdana

Спасибо большое за Ваш отзыв. Желаю успехов в научной работе и буду следить за Вашими новыми публикациями! С уважением, Богдана Заика
Comments: 5

Nasrullaeva Nafisa

Уважаемая Богдана. Мне очень приятно за ваш положительный отзыв о моей статье. Благодарю Вас. Да, я действительно занимаюсь всесторонним изучением английских фразеологических единиц и это доставляет мне удовольствие. Я также прочла ваш доклад и скажу откровенно, что вы очень точно анализируете материал и у вас большие перспективы в вашей области исследования. С уважением, Насруллаева Нафиса.

Tetyana Monakhova

Уважаемая Богдана, с большим интересом прочла Ваш доклад. Аббревиация, ставшая столь популярной моделью в ХХ веке, продолжает оставаться продуктивной базой для лингвистических исследований. В частности, очень активно развиваются аббревиатуры в речи Интернет-пользователей. Скажите, пожалуйста, планируете ли Вы более подробно останавливаться на особенностях "виртуальных" аббревиатур? :) С уважением, Татьяна Монахова.

Zaika Bogdana

Уважаемая Татьяна, спасибо за проявленный интерес к моему докладу. Что касается виртуальных аббревиатур, то здесь можно смело утверждать об огромном исследовательском потенциале этой сферы. Со стремительным развитием информационных технологий появляются все новые и новые термины и аббревиатуры, которые можно рассматривать с точки зрения как лингвистики, так и социальной детерминированности языка. С уважением, Богдана Заика

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Богдана, Ваш доклад четко струтурирован, логически изложен и заслуживает на внимание. Желаю Вам удачи в дальнейших исследованиях. С уважением, Суворова Татьяна.

Zaika Bogdana

Спасибо большое за Ваш отзыв. Желаю успехов в научной работе и буду следить за Вашими новыми публикациями! С уважением, Богдана Заика
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