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Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, Ukraine
Ivan Konoplitsky, leading expert
Social organization in the promotion of child and youth research
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Input a word in the article the methods and ways of making psychological and forensic portrait of the criminal. The correlation between the psychological and criminological components to create a portrait of the criminal. Explored the concept of "crime scene", "victim", "expert". Pekomendatsii proposed cooperation of experts in the field of psychology and criminology.
Keywords: expert psychological portrait, a portrait of forensic, criminal, crime scene.
In the 80 years of the twentieth century. in connection with an investigation of the case of serial killer Theodore Robert Bundy at the National Academy of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (Kuantiko, Virginia) was a department of behavior (FBI Behavioral Sciences Unit, BSU), that work used a method of assembling a psychological portrait of the offender ("Method psychological profile") is based on criminal activity analysis is the assumption of the psychological characteristics of the offender, his personal pre-defining characteristics. Profile viewed as a set of behavioral traits that form the distinctive way of actions or emotional responses that indicate a definite individual.
In 1984, the Center has been established behavioral psychology (Department of behavior) and one national database - VICAP. American method of constructing a psychological portrait based on the principles of psychoanalysis and behavior and is that on the basis of the data (the way of crime Revealing traces , information about the identity of the victim, etc.) Professional psychologist (profiler) is likely psychologically meaningful description characteristics of an unknown person who committed the crime, which indicates the estimated age, sex, race, marital status, service status, level of development and sexual maturity, the probability of a crime in the future, possibly criminal past relationship with the victim and other information.
Psychological profile possible criminal if the following data
From the very beginning Method of psychological profile was created as a means of combating serial murders , but later became used to deal with other crimes. The psychological portrait of an unknown perpetrator not being developed for each offense, of course - in the commission of resonance, especially violent crimes and mass, for example, continuous killings, terrorism, crimes committed through national and religious hatred. To date, Ukraine problems compiling psychological portrait criminals practically engaged. In compiling psychological portrait of unknown criminals involved only some sexologists, psychologists and psychiatrists, among which stands out the Rostov psychiatrist Buhanovskoho. One of the most complete presentation of the current state of the doctrine of the psychological profile of the offender belongs Obraztsova and Bogomolov [102 ] that under psychological portrait understand the system of psychological reports and other features of persons significant in terms of its detection and investigation, consisting of three types of information models.
Some of them contain significant (positive) knowledge about the signs of the unknown entity (such models are formed based on the testimony of victims, witnesses crime and other data collected on procedural basis). Others consist possible with the knowledge that needs checking. Finally, there are combined models that include reliable knowledge (information) about one and a possible knowledge about other elements of a crime.
As one of the types of forensic mental models, psychological profile (portrait) wanted criminals is a system of reports of psychological and other characteristics of the person, significant in terms of its detection and identification.
Since this system includes features not only a psychological origin, but legal, research, social demographic and other characteristics, seems more accurate to define the object as a psychological and forensic characteristics of the offender.
Psychological and forensic portrait unidentified perpetrator - a specific product analysis the investigator and attracted to work in the case of specialists. He developed psycho- forensic techniques and knowledge of the criminal event focused on identifying individual features installed in the case of persons suitable for the purposes of investigating crime.
When psychological and forensic portrait is understood result of psycho- legal research materials criminal cases of unsolved crimes, which contains information on the characteristics of the offender search, recommendation for the nomination versions (investigators, investigative, expert) and their main areas of mining and predictive assessment of the probability of another such offense.
The method of construction of psychological and forensic portrait is a description of the individual identity of the alleged offender, followed by identification of stable relationships between a wide range of objective evidence of a crime (forensic characteristics of their elements) and attributes peculiar to persons guilty of committing it.
The general object of the present method is a criminal event (forensic characteristics of the offense), the direct object – behavioral characteristics of the offender in the context of the criminal event.
The subject content is psychological and forensic portrait subjectively criminal act. At the core assembly psychological and forensic portrait alleged offender is the definition of psychological (subjective, personal) values of some elements crime characteristic , based on the establishment probabilistic relationship between forensic parameters that characterize the whole place, time, way, weapon, the suspect and the victim and meaningful to search for characteristics of the offender.
The purpose of this method is the formulation of criminal search features that can be used for criminal investigation officers identifying the suspects in solving such crimes, as well as for the formation of detective version, operational and investigative activities.
Hence, the name "psychological and forensic portrait" rather conveys the meaning method of application than the "psychological profile (portrait )." Moreover, the structure "psychological portrait" beyond the internal , psychological , and behavioral traits of man. These include the social and general physical (biological ) characteristics.
In drawing these portraits ( models) should be involved scientific and practitioners - experts: investigators, staff operational units, forensic experts, experts, psychologists, forensic doctors. The result of their joint action could be concluded (or information) that is a recommendation.
When building a psychological and forensic portrait simulation using scientific methods, and the picture is a model of personality unidentified perpetrator.Identity of an unknown offender may be subject to forensic modeling in the absence of information about it in the police or their failure. In this case it is possible on the basis of available information on how the crime, the mechanism of the offense, and so on. As well as abandoned material and ideal model of personality must create an unidentified perpetrator - that his forensic psychological portrait.
Objectivity conclusions about the characteristics of the offender in a psychological and forensic portrait is supported by the general rules of analysis of the criminal case.
1. Refusal from premature generalizations and conclusions.
2. Variability assumptions (statements of possibility and degree of probability, consideration of all sorts of assumptions and alleged various situations).
3.Bahatorazovistyu observations (repeatability) manifestations of personality traits in other circumstances and actions. Make a conclusion about a particular feature of the offender can only be based on the analysis of many forms of his behavior, as reflected in the various elements of forensic crime.
4. Control by other methods (eg specifically organized experiment).
5. Detect inconsistencies in the logic of criminal acts, events and circumstances are together. Search explanations, not excluding the possibility of staging.
6.Individual objects are combined into a system, systems, due to the essence of the phenomena, subject to this order "observation" that no important to investigate the object is left unattended.
This estimated value of one fact in the other facts. When alternative hypotheses about individual preference to that is great reason to combine elements of the crime.
Psychological and forensic portrait of an unknown perpetrator is not chaotic, but according to rigidly designed stages (stages). Thus, according to the canons of the American Psychological profiling are five stages of construction psychological and forensic portrait unknown perpetrator.
Stages of the construction of the psychological portrait (profile) of the offender by American canons:
1. The initial collection of information on specific features of a crime. Includes examination of the scene, offering analysis , previous reports and study investigators concluded forensics.
2. Classification of an unknown perpetrator. Implemented on a number of criteria, such as isolated organized and disorganized criminals, criminals targeted the implementation of crime and criminal result-oriented and so on.
3. Creating a credible model of offender. Probable model - a direct description of the perpetrator of the defined criteria (gender, age, intelligence, social adaptability, criminal history, etc.) Based on the aggregate of all available information on the case. Completeness and precision description directly depends on how well conducted preliminary stage. In the process of creating plausible models are not sufficiently developed a theoretical framework as targeted primarily at existing empirical material. In each case, all features are considered together, and therefore can not be exhaustive and correct in 100 % of cases.
4. Development proposals for the plan apprehend the perpetrator.
5. Development of recommendations on interrogation tactics a person suspected of a crime. Not all methods of compiling forensic psychological portrait of the same. In fact, there are at least two assembly techniques psychological and forensic portrait developed by investigators and criminologists in the United States.
Some psychologists believe that the method of construction of psychological and forensic portraits of today can not be considered fully research through virtual absence in her taxonomy. Indeed, the most common characteristics of the person who committed the crime are established based on available science-based statistical regularities, but consistent details PEP offender mainly focused on the experience, knowledge and common sense of the person who is portrait. The practice of constructing forensic psychological portrait that includes hundreds of successful cases includes a large number of statements creatively using what specialists are likely profile of an unknown subject, very close to reality.
It is believed, rightly, that the scene are habits , skills and abilities of the offender. Despite the caution, when confronted with the world outside it, the wine can not reflect in the footsteps of his stereotype behavioris in preparation for a crime in its commission and concealment .
The effectiveness of with traces is not only to find them, but in order to be able to make reliable conclusions from them and use them for the purpose of detecting and investigating crime.
In theory and practice of psychology studies mental phenomena out of the specific actions and deeds of man, with its objective behavior. Thus, based on the existence of a common for foreign and domestic activities macrostructure can talk about perfect ability to leave a "footprint" in the material medium in the form of a comprehensive, person- regulation track.
Engineering drawing of forensic psychological portrait:
1. Inductive forensic psychological portrait (profile)
Profile is very easy to use, does not require any special forensicknowledge, professional education and experience, in addition, generalized profiles up pretty quickly. Sources:1) formal and informal learning known criminals , 2) experience , 3) data from the media .
Disadvantages: The information provided relates only to a limited part of the population does not refer directly to any criminal proceedings and can not be used to compile a psychological portrait of the individual, in addition, contains inaccuracies that may contribute to an innocent.
When profiling takes into account the following features: • criminals who commit crimes still exist in the same cultural environment as the current criminals because they are influenced by the same environment and have similar motivations; • small group of known criminals engaged the same crimes as criminals known to have similar characteristics that can be applied to unknown perpetrators in the synthesis of information; • can predict human behavior based on statistical analysis of existing primarycharacteristics; • conduct and motives do not change over time, ie, a static, predictable phenomena.
2. Deductive forensic psychological portrait (profile) The process of interpreting evidence on the basis of evidence , crime scene photos, results of forensic corpse, as well as a thorough examination of a particular offender and the victims of crime scene analysis. Purpose - Recovery of specific criminal behavior at the crime scene, which might bring them psychological and demographic characteristics,motives and emotional state. Advantages : Its application allows to set the modus operandi (mode of action) and writing offender. Disadvantages : Spending large amounts of time , the need for knowledge in many fields of science , involving specialists, availability of special training and skills in the field of criminology, forensic science, crime scene playback. In addition, a profile can not specify a particular existing identity and prove that she is guilty of a crime until it is installed a unique writing offender. The base construction is the following: • Every crime must be investigated separately with the release of motivation and behavioral characteristics of the person who committed it; • none of the perpetrators is not valid without motivation; • criminals have their own motivation that distinguishes them from others; • the behavior of each person individually and shaped over time by biological and social factors; • criminal mode of action may evolve over time with new crimes; • one offender can follow several motives at the time of committing as few, as well as a specific crime.
This "should" not less suitable to identify the offender than it should be finger. Hence, the basis for the development of psychological and forensic portrait put some psychological principles of analysis of events.
Of course, for the effective investigation of criminal cases in Ukraine there is a need to create a special unit of experts (department) that would be involved in drawing up exclusively psychological and forensic portraits of unknown criminals.
The structure of such a unit should be included : investigator , forensic experts , the expert psychologist , psychiatrist , forensic. In our opinion , only the collective work of experienced professionals can help develop an objective and reasonable PEP.
Unlike multi verbal portrait of psychological and forensic portrait reflects the internal, psychological, and behavioral signs of man. Its primary function - to be a means of finding, identifying the perpetrator, whose identity has not been established. Psychological and forensic portrait is not formed on the basis of reliable knowledge about it signs appear, and based on knowledge of the likely nature.
It is also important that this method "works" not in every case, the investigation of the crime. Paul its use are just a few of cases, especially those related to the disclosure of serious crimes against the person.
We know another important limitation of possibilities of its application. Typically, the method of psychological and forensic portrait realized in cases where the state of the scene and the victim suggest the presence of an unknown perpetrator for any variations in behavior, psychology, emotional state. These restrictions, however, do not diminish the importance of this method as dire current tools to honorably leave the deadlocks in which other methods are simply useless.
Told primarily concerns the problem of opening the serial murders committed in different places and at different times of individuals with psychosexual anomalies.The material needed to build a forensic psychological portrait collected through careful study of the victim and the crime scene.
Types of crimes that hinder the possibility of drawing a portrait of psychological and forensic criminal: 1. Murder committed for robbery. In the considered case, the victim - a means to achieve this goal. 2. Crimes related to drug use. It is difficult to distinguish between stable personality traits of the excited states of consciousness at the time of the crimes caused by narcotic poisoning. Thus, for any offense where there are signs of psychological dysfunction , you can try to make PEP offender. If the idea of psycho-forensic portrait emerged regarding the offender, the current position of the control panel you can make (create ) and of the sacrifice , and some very important witnesses.
The list of data to be established to create a psychological portrait of the criminal forensic
Types of crimes that suggest the possibility of drawing the criminal:
The materials used for the preparation of forensic psychological portrait:
1. Photos: - photographs of the crime scene - color photographs, enlarged - the existing body injury victims - victims of pictures taken from different positions and at different angles.
Studied and analyzed photographs, maps, plans, diagrams, and all objects detected directly at the crime scene and around it. At that maximum attention is paid to every detail visible in the photo, each fixed on pictures or portrait position in which the body was found , is defined logical connection objects with predictable course crime. Thus, in the exercise of murder in a building not only interest is the room where the body was found, but photographs of all the other rooms house and its surroundings. Along with survey your photos and pictures of parts recorded from different directions and at different angles.
2. Materials autopsy and investigation results of autopsy
Often it is necessary that medical examiner, who will have to do the autopsy, was previously called to the scene so that it can have an idea of what happened, and make certain conclusions (as an expert). The process of opening should be recorded using the camera. Analysis section is focused on getting answers to the following questions: What instruments where, in what sequence and with what force had suffered injuries that cause death. Accurate localization of damage to the victim suggesting whether the victim was suddenly invaded by a killer or murder preceded the battle. Interest is the number of injuries that damage inflicted posthumously whether the injury inflicted through clothing or on bare skin area of the body. The overall picture of damage suggests a psychological state killer at the time of the crime and whether there were between him and the victim of any relationship.
3. Pattern displacement victims to death: place of work; residence; where last seen the victim before she was discovered at the crime scene.
4. Documents with information about the identity of the victim
In the method psychological and forensic portrait study offerings available just as essential as the study of criminal. For psychological and forensic portrait offender must have a forensic psychological portrait of the victim. In this work should be allocated additional staff, specialized in the field of forensic victimology (branch of criminology that examines the psychological and moral features of the victim). This pattern consists of the following data: age, sex, physical features, including clothing during the incident, marital status, social adaptability, intelligence, school performance, relationships at school, lifestyle and recent changes in lifestyle, personality traits and temperament, demeanor, place of residence (former and present), the relationship of place of residence and place of crime, sexual adaptability, occupation (former and actual), reputation at home and at work, medical history (physical and mental characteristics) personal habits (alcohol , drugs), social habits, hobbies, passions, friends and enemies.
5. Information about the full picture of the crime committed and reconstruction mechanism: information about the location, time and date of the event; testimony; kind of weapon with which the crime was committed, and so on.
With the characteristics of victims, crime scene analysis, the nature of injury and damage to the victim can reconstruct the approximate sequence of events of the crime. It often helps to clarify why the offender chose a particular course of action. Reconstruction Mechanism committed to diagnose mental state of the offender at the time of the crime, an idea of the level of natural intelligence and education of the offender. Of particular interest is the behavior of the offender in the so-called situation after the murder (or hid the victim's body , or destroy other evidence in panic or leave the scene, leaving various signs , etc.).
Developers psychological and forensic portrait is recommended to pay attention to the attack on the victims of criminals. This should fix the day and it features: work or weekends, holidays. The presence or absence of holidays, holidays in the number of days of the week, elected to carry out attacks indicates the marital status of the offender, the degree of commitment to the family, the presence of the latter.
You also need to consider the possible connection time offense of operating mode of the item location: the end of secondary school, businesses, increasing the number of people in the place of the crime or, conversely, reducing their number.
Typically, the offender away from the starting point (station, stop) for about the same distance in all cases, seizures.
Forensic psychology portrait and its use is not evidence in the case, but can be successfully used when searching for evidence and conducting operational and investigative activities of exposing the guilty. In the non-obviousness it can be used to specify narrow down the suspects, promote and implement test versions that appear only when you use it . It would be a mistake to abandon the development and use of psychological and forensic portrait, arguing that the complexity and lack of preparedness of workers. Of course, this requires a certain psychological knowledge and skills. Skilled workers acquire them for many years operational, investigative or expert practices and constitute the understanding of the psychology of the person of interest to them , without naming a psychological portrait. Drawing psychological and forensic portrait - not just a set of words containing certain psychological characteristics. Forensic Psychology- portrait to be considered a professional folded when the employee initially focused on how to give it the characteristics, properties. For this, there are certain techniques and rules.
Methods of compiling forensic psychological portrait:
1. Admission control panel assembly by adding it to the set of properties
1.1 Rule selectivity focuses on the need to choose certain psychological characteristics of individuals representing a particular professional interest for police officers.
1.2 Rule sufficiency turns out that for general psychological characteristics virtually limitless.
1.3 Rule Probability Vidnahodyty information that is reliable and can be obtained only with adequate psychological training of the worker , using his legal advice psychology.
1.4 Rule integrity.
2. Reception structure psychological and forensic portrait (algorithm of portrait)
2.1 Rule focus on the overall structure of the individual
In determining the structural components of the portrait that is, must be based on the recommendations of Psychology, follow the general structure: 1) focus (structure system motives - goals, motives, needs, interests and views on life, etc.), 2) character (moral and psychological appearance , attitude to work, to people, to myself) 3) business skills (intelligence, attention, memory, dedication, perseverance, persistence, organization, activity, independence, self-control, etc.). 4) preparedness ( education , occupation , experience, wisdom ), 5) temperament ( balance , reaction speed , emotion , resistance , etc.).
2.2 Rule legally significant typing
Recommended come from certain types of people with whom the employee had confronted and having identified penal value .
Rule 2.3 Recommended individualization , based on the original data on typological features of the person , not limited to but always specify the psychological information using progressively with the degree of deepening acquaintance with him .
2.4 Rule of legal expertise and experience of the individual criminal
2.5 Rule situational certainty personality psychology
3. Acceptance of the use of all sources of information for the preparation of PEP
Rule 3.1 score for the deeds , actions and their results
3.2 Rule consideration of other thoughts about this person
3.3 The method is a generalization of independent characteristics.
Rule 3.4 of psychological assessment instruments that characterize a person.
3.5 Rule biographical .
3.6 Rule position in life.
3.7 Rule extraction psychological information of the things that belong to man.
3.8 Acceptance of reflection. Assumes an imaginary setting yourself in the investigated person and an idea of what kind of psychology can be thus.
Psychological analysis of traces of the crime and the circumstances under Method of SAR offender is able to initiate productive version of its features that allow you to narrow the search range , and identify the guilty persons not
caught the attention of investigators . With these requirements in forensic psychological portrait of the offender recommended to include a fairly wide range of data.
Psychological principles of analysis of the events underlying the development of psychological and forensic portrait:
1. Admission forensic reconstruction mechanism offense.
In retrospect , the signs at the scene and his circumstances played a number of external actions of the offender and the crime situation .
2. Admission psychological modeling behavior of the offender.
Objective - detected by three psychological methods of analysis in reconstructed outside of the criminal elements "individual action".
2.1 Rule Detection " individual action " based on establishing individual
2.2 Rule Detection " individual action " based on the establishment of a relatively stable situation.
2.3 Rule Detection " individual action " based on the establishment of stability in time.
3. Admission psychological interpretation of criminal behavior (individual actions). Objective - to explain psychologically justify "individual actions" criminal.
3.1 Rule explanation " individual action " " strength " of the individual that determined the choice of this action among possible others.
1) put forward a theory that the " individual action" manifested any of the following individual parameters : • orientation (needs , motivations, attitudes , life plans , concepts , values , inclinations , tastes , interests ); • social and psychological behavior (including demographic , cultural , social and interpersonal status, roles, lifestyles and communication ); • characterological qualities ( character accented properties of the individual ); • mental properties and processes (especially the intellectual, emotional and volitional spheres of perception , attention, language ); • operational characteristics (habits , abilities, skills , knowledge ); • biopsyhichni characteristics (temperament , sex , age , morphological , pathological characteristics, health status ); • features sexuality ( sexual orientation, biological and social determinants of personal problem).
2) are assessed in the context of criminal above personal parameters ( associated to the peculiarities of the actions of the offender with any of its parameters , able to explain these actions).
3.2 Rule explanation " individual action " " operationalist content" that led to this choice of action amongpossible others.
1) put forward a theory that the " individual actions" implemented the previous experience of the way that it covers, the acquired skills : professional , household , related to hobbies and other habits.
2) should be established to link the skills , habits, knowledge, skills, attributes and properties of the individual as able to explain the detected characteristic behavior (ie, to give a semantic interpretation of "individual actions" of the offender ).
3.3 Rule explanation " individual action " mechanism masking " weaknesses Items " criminal.
1 ) It is necessary to analyze whether the offender is chosen "individual action" ( set of actions ) " camouflage "
in particular, that is the nature of concealment , stage adaptations .
2 ) It is appropriate to push the story of the relationship of the offender to the victim , able to explain the " individual action ".
Therefore justified version that or the scene or the victim in this episode combined with signs of criminal: a) the spatial proximity of the crime scene to his place of residence or his usual movements and so on. (while the other crimes he made a relatively long distance, beyond its normal orbit of life), and b) the presence of any of its communication with the victim, capable, when establishing this connection, police officers , search and narrow down the " calculate " it.
Considered psychological techniques develop PEP demonstrate that the establishment of psychological (subjective) content of criminal action , and clarify intentions that are behind them , can reasonably put forward the version attributes of the person who committed the crime.
Forensic Psychology- portrait as a model, will be the system of forensic meaningful information about specific properties of the individual unidentified perpetrator, with which it is possible to determine the direction of search, as well as to predict its future behavior.