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Technical and Agricultural College of Soroca, Moldova
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Moldova";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
In the literature it is proposed to improve the activity of educational institutions with agricultural profile through various avenues of business efficiency and very rarely take into account the social consequences of proposed actions. This paper examines only the directions that enhance the effectiveness of social-economic development of educational institutions in agrarian complex. Close links between the economic and the social aspect allows you to appreciate the broader objective of efficiency and institutions.
We believe that increasing the level of aggregation of costs in the determination of the qualitative indicators can minimize the size, because the syndicate indicators have a different character, their volume depends on various factors. Therefore, we are of the opinion that it is effective to reduce funding standards just a figure, taking into account the lack of "transparency" in the mechanism.
Budgetary funding codes must correspond to the legal acts in force and to be consistent with the particularities of the educational institutions with profile.
The cost for the training of students is different and depends on the concrete conditions. Objective conditions of existence of a differentiation in cost of training leads to the following consequences: in some educational institutions will be created artificial scarcity of means, and the other will be a surplus, which will stimulate the growth of the cost of education.
The economic mechanism that works in educational institutions, do not encourage providers of educational services to achieve high quality results in pedagogic activity. Introduction of normative model of budgetary funding will facilitate the reorientation of educational institutions to improve the quality of educational services only where based on the concept of the model will be made upgrade of the dependence of educational service quality assessment provided. Existing concepts of normative funding does not take into account the quality of the educational services provided, which, in our view, is a shortcoming, which does not allow to speak about their importance for enhancing the effectiveness of educational institutions.
In the planned economy, educational financing, also carry out in accordance with articles based on natural rules. Funding models, which are not targeted at the end result will be a mere similarity (as a result of the allocation of a smaller footprint means) with old Soviet model and will not contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of educational institutions Cardinal. The proposed standards of budgetary financing are considered, on average, for each institution, thus placing the educational institutions that operate effectively in adverse conditions.
In developed countries there are different opinions regarding the methods of financing of educational institutions. Researchers abroad warned of the negative consequence of funding guidelines that are based on the costs to an individual : after the introduction of this system in colleges in the United Kingdom, "in almost all colleges have reduced hours essential objects in order to reduce costs. It appeared that fear will decrease the quality of the students ' training. Moreover, the "Faculty began to be treated as a main article, rather than spending a precious human potential". M. Schilbek and h. Konnell noted that "in most countries have been reduced significantly both the rules of operation and the number of teachers ... Educational institutions have been put in a situation when you need to give more with less "[8, p. 71].
Consider the opinion of some specialists that the incorrect talk about increasing economic efficiency, and, in fact, propose to make the economy on account of insufficient funding of educational institutions [1, 1]. Introduction of payment and, de facto, substitution, but not completing the extra- budgetary of the budgetary funding, in our vision, is very harmful, in terms of the effectiveness of educational institutions, and support the opinion of scientists, that "education strategy, which supports the direction to trading, may be regarded as pernicious" [3, p. 54]. The problem of the allocation of the family must become an object of discussion. Under the terms of the income of the majority of modest families, increase the volume of orientation to address, in our opinion, it is a little early. Followers of the so-called market model, that due to the extensive marketing, increasing the payment for educational services and institutional transformation of the market it is possible to solve the problem of the lack of finance and overcome the crisis, linked to the reduction of budgetary funds.
Opting for the substitution of budgetary funds by private ones, they recognize only budget limitations and do not take into consideration the aspects of social equity, equality in obtaining social mobility, and Reducing budget expenditure for educational institutions will necessarily lead to the worsening of the economic situation in the country and to lower the standard of living of the majority of the population. As a result, it will reduce the budget and income and ability to pay on the part of the applicants. There are plenty of arguments to assert that the financing of the budget and extra- budgetary are closely related and have resource limitations. In the case of reducing budgetary funding, it is impossible to expect increased investment in educational institutions means, in the best case will be held just a simple substitution of extra-budgetary funds.
Some specialists emphasize lobbying contemporary business and market principles on the status of U.S. colleges, aspiration to see in them the source of economic income, and students – the future of the market and consumers say that in this way it distorts traditional educational institutions objective – to prepare citizens informed, future specialists . Controversial opinions regarding the effectiveness of the expenditure for the improvement of the teachers still haunted by the mid-1970s. We believe that in terms of prevalence of the importance of human capital, improving teacher training need to be investigated as a factor in enhancing the quality of education essential. Will be put in discussion the following issues: how to organize training of teachers so that investments in it to be as effective, qualification enhancement methods prevail: with or without frequency (in the opinion of the researchers ' success to those who study at the day is much higher than those of the part-time "[5, p. 187], on the basis of which the educational technologies it is possible to make teachers more effective recycling, etc. Since 1980, has spread quickly about opinion surveys as an investment of capital, inefficient and expensive. In such research, the notion about the effectiveness and results of the training are addressed simply: determining the effectiveness evaluation of the institution and the teacher's activity is based on the "expenses – graduation", which was borrowed from the field of industrial production. Some researchers point to the necessity of reviewing the concept "expenses – effectiveness" in relation to teacher studies [6, p. 21].
At the same time, we emphasize that the main problem of educational institutions, in our view, lies in the transition of enterprises with a sectoral character, at the same time keeping the structure of the system of professional education. Currently, held heated debates on the issue of vocational training, in which it expresses opinions, diametrically opposed, the effectiveness of this type of institution. For example, the World Bank, Frumin, assert, that in Russia "is hard to imagine a more ineffective", moreover, he speaks of the futility of this system and calls for the destruction of the system of professional education: "the World Bank examines the effectiveness of teaching as a prerequisite the instrumental ... If the system is not effective, it means it is useless content ". Unfortunately, I. Frumin and experts of the World Bank does not address the issue of effectiveness of social education [7, 8]. This opinion is far from the truth.
Educational institutions of the State, which is in a bad economic situation, being maintained in the taxpayers ' taxes, preparing specialists for free commercial structures.
In order to increase the effectiveness of educational institutions, formulate the following methodical approach of the problems of the structure of educational institutions:
1. To increase the reliability of the training. The implementation of this principle allows to solve the essential problem of education quality and productivity. Some scholars pointed out that at the level of school, high school, is the Foundation for a successful vocational training, but at the same time, the quality of education decreased considerably: "Finishing primary school with their knowledge, in the best case, 70-80%, average – approximately 25-30%, in the best case scenario-35%. In medium to large classes there is a reduction in the number of those who espouse quality "[2, p. 283].
2. Compliance with the society's objectives of the educational system. Implementation of the principle will facilitate the Elimination of contradictions between the productivity and the effectiveness of educational institutions. There are educational institutions that achieve high results in the formation of the pupils and students of abilities and skills, it is their goal, but the knowledge, abilities and skills does not correspond to the expectations of the company and of other providers and workers.
3. Combining teaching with practice, work activity. Educational institutions, followers of different level, can be (and is) production capacity of the company in the wake of the joint learning with productive work.
4. Sizing levels. Currently, the structure of the educational institutions there were elements of the multistage system. Growth increments are created in initial vocational training, not only the traditional institutions of education, professional environment, and colleges, providing an education to a higher level. At the level of professional education, parallel with that work, was introduced to the master step.
5. Autoregulation. The educational institutions, primarily of professional training, must be replaced with a self contained system, which, being flexible, it would be able to adapt to the changing conditions of the environment "external" and, thus, to increase their effectiveness. One of the directions in this context may be creating advanced vocational training centres. The investigations carried out by some experts [4, p. 22], have shown increasing the effectiveness of social and the results of the economic activity in comparison with results of educational institutions.
6. Completion of basic training and postgraduate. The conditions of the contemporary civilization implies the need for continuous training, when every man shall have, during their lives, to improve training and to obtain the postgraduate studies.
7. Flexibility and how educational programs. Because in contemporary society there is a tendency to change more often in the occupational profile of the worker's employment, it is necessary to ensure educational institutions a flexible educational programs.
To enhance the effectiveness of the educational institutions they contribute and correct planning and forecasting of changes made that have an impact on the activity. First, it is necessary to predict demographic processes. Ignoring them can have unpredictable consequences. For example, the increase in birth rates in the U.S.A., predicted by demographers and which was not heeded by the Government circles, makes it impossible to place students in schools, in particular, that has increased and the number of students due to the flow of immigrants.
The Ministry of agriculture and food industry, based on the model of other European countries, has adopted the basic premise – to fully utilize the resources of the national scientific research in the agricultural sector. This challenge is possible, because the Republic of Moldova has the resources to meet the needs of virtually every segment of this sector.
It was adopted a medium-term goal to achieve the reorganization of subordinate institutions and resources involved in the process of training and research in the field of agriculture. The preparatory work for a concept of reorganization of government scientific research resources in the agricultural sector is in progress. The main features of the new system of research and training will be: meeting the needs of the market, efficiency, professionalism and flexibility. They will allow for a greater mobilization of public resources and focusing research and development initiatives. The current activity of the preparation involves the following steps:
1. strengthening research heritage; 2. training of personnel management, teaching and research. In this respect we would like to present a few schemes developed by the author, containing the stages in the management of human resources in educational institutions in agriculture (Figure 1). and the actions of management training with permanent character (Figure 2) and are periodically (fig. 3)
Fig. 1. Stages of human resources management in agricultural education institutions
Source: adapted by author.
Fig. 2. Management training actions permanently
Source: adapted by author
Fig. 3. Action management training with periodic
Source:adapted by author.
1. Strengthening the areas of training of future specialists in the field of agriculture.
Fig. 4. The structure of the fields of education and training
Source: adapted by author.
The management of educational institutions has its impact to agricultural training of specialist agricultural secondary education through the implementation of modern educational methodologies with the use of information and communication technologies. The structure of this stage is shown in Figure 4.
The effect of the proposed reorganization will be effective implementation of new tasks, flexibility and efficiency of the management of assets, including a reduction in operating costs.
The planned building will be preceded by an internal restructuring of research institutes in order to create more powerful units and more functional. New, more powerful units, will be able to develop and implement long-term programs, including interdisciplinary and international programs.