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INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHODS IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION WITH SPORTS STUDENTS

INTERACTIVE TEACHING METHODS IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION WITH SPORTS STUDENTS
Doncheva, Liliya, english teacher and ph.d. student

National Sports Academy Vassil Levski, Bulgaria

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Bulgaria";

the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;

Interactive techniques in second language acquisition are in the base of all modern educational approaches. The aim is to use such didactical methods which can ensure the efficient interaction between the teacher and the students. Examples of such techniques could be the discourse, discussion, dispute, games, case study, brainstorming, project making, etc. Using interactive methods and techniques helps overcoming the existing or arising difficulties and communication barriers by stimulating the process of thinking and generating and exchange of ideas.

Keywords :interactive techniques, second language acquisition

 

Second language acquisitionis a must in the contemporary global society. The professional attitude today requires speaking at least one foreign language as a major priority among the European educational strategies and curricula (2). Knowing a foreign language gives the possibility for immediate and optimal inclusion in the intercultural information system – effective integration in the globalized world and successful use of the new technologies. Nowadays, intercultural communication is a major fundamental need – valuable for every specialist. Information literacy allows one to join not only a certain educational/academic environment, but also one’s future professional environment (1). Being an element of interpersonal communication it is characterized with diversity and changeability and depends to a great extent on the culture and cultural differences of the participants. Each party has to initiate and facilitate the first steps in this communication and be a responsible agent in the process – to stimulate, to analyze, to reason. There are various needs classifications by many classical psychologists (5, 6, 9) where language is considered to be the first personal need and a premise for achieving an effective interaction when one encounters another culture. Second language acquisition is claimed to be a fundamental inner need, regulated by certain stimuli and goals, which increases one’s activity to reach them (3, 7).

Sport is a field where the process of globalization develops quite quickly. Sport today attracts athletes and spectators from all around the world. This means that knowing English on behalf of the managing team, coaches, referees, competitors, and organizers is not only more or less a conscious need but also a vital precondition and factor for a successful and fruitful intercultural communication.

The modern educationist understands that learning is a highly comprehensive task, connected to the learners’ culture (8).  What is more, “Culture is not only a collection of different activities, it is a way of life”(4). This way of life, in sports context, is a total dedication to the sports discipline chosen. In their endeavour for high achievements the athletes view the second language as a personal need but in order to be fully involved they need special attention and require a special approach.

The current changes in the academic environment challenge lecturers to search for newer and attractive teaching methods to capture their students’ attention.  One of the ways for improving the process of learning a foreign language is through the use of interactive teaching methods.

The aimof the present study is to reveal which interactive methods of teaching English language could be successfully applied in the education with sports students.

The research was held among 309 sports students (213 boys and 96 girls) at the National Sports Academy “Vassil Levski”.

In order to achieve the aim of the research the following tasks were set:

1.      To develop a number of various interactive methods of teaching English language to sports students.

2.      To test the methods in educational environment and observe students’ reactions and interest.

The research was held during the first and second semesters of the academic year 2011/2012.

Results

The pedagogical experiment held among the sports students at the NSA “Vassil Levski” was developed on the base of exhaustive analysis of their needs regarding their English studies. The analysis reveals the following trends: 1) The majority of the students speak English on a basic level; 2) The students want to accumulate knowledge and skills in English in the following areas: a) terminology of the kind of sport they practice and some of the sports in the curriculum of the NSA; b) basic communication skills during competitions; c) use of sports materials and publications in the Internet and specialized sports editions.

Based on the above mentioned trends various teaching procedures and techniques were created. They aimed at fulfilling the conceptual idea of theinteractivity of the teaching process. The natural pedagogical experiment among the sports students during the academic year 2011/2012 includes the successful application of the following teaching procedures:

1.“polar opposites”: the teacher provides the students with two versions of an example. Choosing one of the versions the students have to think the matter over applying their knowledge. This procedure serves for filling in the gaps in grammar and for indirect error correction. (e.g. Compare the two pairs of sentences: United States are playing against Greece. vs.  United States play against Greece; United States usually play one on one. vs. United States are usually playing one on one.Which sentence is best used in the given situation?)

2.“guess the right answer”: the teacher introduces the new topic by asking a question connected to a sports term. Through brainstorming he/she encourages the participation of each student (e.g. Using your knowledge of football, try to guess the English names of the positions of players on a basketball team.).

3 ”biographic method”: the teacher sets a written task, connected with the students’ life. They have to describe the beginning of their sports career, to share their attitude to the kind of sport they practice, to describe the most thrilling moments during competitions, etc. The use of the “personal” element in the educational process leads to “personification” of education and increases the participation motivation of the students.

4  “word of the day”: the teacher chooses a term which appears in all the exercises in the lesson (e.g. exercises for word formation). In groups, the students have to use the same model with another term (e.g. Pay attention to the grammar and lexical forms of the word “defend” in the following sentences, taken from the texts and exercises we have worked on so far: Thedefensiveplayersdidtheirjobperfectlywell.; It’shardtoplayagainsttheirdefence.; Payattentiontotheircentraldefender!  Try to create similar sentences with some of the following words: attack, play, run, block“ in the context of the different sports you know.).

5 “presentation”: the teacher provides the students with a long text, including information about the rules of a certain sport, the equipment, the positions of the players, etc. The students have to summarize the information in Power Point presentation and show their work to their fellow students. The teacher and the rest of the students ask questions connected with the expose. The method is very successful in groups of students practicing different kinds of sports.

6.“tournament”: the class is divided into two groups which compete for a higher score on a few given texts. Each group reads the text and then answers questions. The competitive nature of the sports students focuses their attention on the material and increases their competitive motivation.

7.“true or false”: the teacher distributes cards with certain statements. Half of the statements are true, the others are false. The students who think their information is correct go to one part of the room; those with the wrong statements go the other part. The statements then are read aloud and discussed by the whole group. This procedure can be used for revision of the teaching material and provides the teacher with an adequate feedback.

8. “questions and answers”: the teacher prepares a card for each student. Half of the cards contain questions and the other half - answers. Each student has to find his/her partner by comparing the questions and answers of his/her fellow-students. The procedure is effective when working on different grammar problems and learning the rules, peculiarities, and terminology of certain kind of sport.

9.“definitions”: in groups the students create definitions, associations, and applications of the concepts discussed in class. This can be used at the beginning of the class or later on for solving a practical case on a certain stage of the lecture (e.g. Try to create short definitions of five basketball terms, using the information given in the text.).

10. “be a coach”: the teacher chooses an advanced student who leads certain part of the lecture (e.g. Students take the roles of the players on a team. The “coach” asks questions, connected with the specifics in the play of each of them, trying to correct the grammar and lexical errors his fellow-students make.). The procedure places the students in a non-standard situation and provokes their interest. Such a funny and relaxing approach stimulates students’ participation in times of tiredness and boredom and prevents the appearance of disincentive feelings. 

11 “be a champion”: the teacher prepares a few lists of multiple choice questions connected with the history, the rules, and some facts about famous people, practicing certain kind of sport. The students are divided into groups of three or four. They have ten sec to choose the right option for each question. The group with the highest result is the “champion of the day”.

A combination of the above described procedures was used in each lesson plan. The students’ reactions, perseverance, participation, and interest towards each procedure were observed. At the end of the academic year the results were analyzed and presented in the form of record of observation (Table 1).

Table 1. Record of Observation

Interactive method

Reaction

Perseverance

Interest

Total

Polar opposites

2

3

3

8

Guess the answer

3

3

3

9

Biographic method

2

3

3

8

Word of the day

2

2

2

6

Presentation

3

3

3

9

Tournament

2

3

3

8

True or false

3

3

3

9

Questions and answers

3

3

3

9

Definitions

2

2

2

6

Be a coach

3

3

3

9

Be a champion

3

3

3

9

1 – low interest; 2 – average interest; 3 – strong interest

The pedagogical experiment held confirms the need of applying specific methods of teaching English to sports students. The results show the effectiveness of interdisciplinary form of education which led to enriching the students’ knowledge in the field of different kinds of sports and at the same time increased their performance in comparison to previous academic years (Table 2). It should be pointed out that two thirds of the students received their final grade on the base of their work and performance during the academic year and did not have to take their final exam. This proves that the use of interactive methods increases students’ motivation and interest and act as an active mechanism for inner regulation of their behavior.

Table. 2Students’ performance in the period 2007-2012

Academic Year

Average Grades

I year students

Average Grades

III year students

2007/2008

2008/2009

2009/2010

2010/2011

2011/2012

4.41

4.31

4.00

4.76

4.88

4.76

4.55

4.34

4.51

5.13

 

In confirmation to this is the data received from the statistical analysis of the average grades values (Table 3). An increase of more than one unit can be observed - a serious proof for the efficiency of the pedagogical experiment.  

Table. 3 Average Grades – academic year 2011/2012

 Stages

N

Min

Max

M

SD

beginning

122

2

6

3,54

1,315

middle

122

2

6

4,45

1,113

end

122

2

6

4,62

1,145

 

Students’ evaluation was done in three stages: at the beginning of the academic 2011/2012; at the end of the first semester, and at the end of the second semester. The comparative analysis of the results from the first and the last stage of the survey (Table 4) show there is a statistically significant difference regarding the students’ average grades (Alfa= 0,00).

Table. 4Comparative analysis between the first and the last survey

Coefficient

End-beginning

Z

-6,814(a)

Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)

,000

 
Conclusion

Interactive teaching methods stimulate learners’ participation and performance. They lead to active actions and interactions in class. The various teaching procedures, the group work, and the immediate feedback the students receive from their fellow-students or their teacher increase their participation and competitive motivation and are an affective factor for improving the learning process. 

 

References:

  1. Баева, М., В. Вълканова (2011). Информационна грамотност в приобщаваща образователна среда. В: Годишно научно-методично списание „Образование и технологии”, СУ „Кл. Охридски”, бр. 2, С., 53-58.
  2. Гюров, Д., Л. Ангелова (2011). Европейски приоритети за образователни стратегии и програми. В: Годишно научно-методично списание „Образование и технологии”, СУ „Кл. Охридски”, бр. 2, С., 50-53.
  3. Обуховский, К. (2003). Галактика потребностей. Психология влечений человека. Изд. „Речь”, Санкт-Петербург.
  4. Eliyt, J. C. (1962). Notes Towards the Definition of Culture. Faber & Faber, Paris-London, 41.
  5. Mackinnon, D. W. (1948). Motivation. In: Boring, E. G. (ed). Foundation of Psychology, N.Y.
  6. Murphy, G. (1947). Personality: a Bio-social Approach to Origins and Strukture. N.Y.
  7. Robert Glyn & Darren Treasure (2012). Advances in Motivation and Exercise, 3rd Edition, Human Kinetics, L.
  8. Steiner, Georg (2006). En el Castillo de Barba Azul. Apromaxion a un nuevo concepto de cultura. Ed. Gedisa, Ldrcelona.
  9. Thomas, W. Y. (1924). The Unadjusted Girl. Boston.
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Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая Лилия, работа очень интересная и актуальная. Особенно интересным мне показались результаты проведенного эксперимента. Желаю дальнейших успехов.

Redkva Yaroslav Petrovych

Уважаемая Лилия, Как преподаватель польского языка (как второго славянского на филологическом факультете ЧНУ) могу сказать, что предложенные Вами интерактивные методики в межкультурной коммуникации или межличностном взаимодействии путем внешнего диалога - это сегодня наиболее эффективное средство изучения языка в различных профессиональных группах. Проверено на практике, в том числе - и моей. Спасибо. С уважением, Ярослав Редьква

Yekshembeyeva Lyudmila

Уважаемая коллега! Ваш личный опыт работы и творческий подход позволили обогатить интерактивную платформу методического обеспечения учебного процесса. Особенно мне понравилось, что помимо ввода спортивной лексики, вы делаете акцент на соревновательности как особом качестве спортсменов и на умении презентовать и себя, и результаты своей деятельности! Успехов Вам и новых находок. Л. Екшембеева

Ponomarenko Elena Borisovna

Уважаемая Лилия! С современной практике преподавания иностранного языка эффективно применяются различные методы и приемы, способствующие интерактивной деятельности. Несомненно Ваш метод показывает новые возможности, связанные с налаживанием межличностного взаимодействия путем внешнего диалога в процессе усвоения материала. Тема очень востребована и актуальна. Желаю дальнейших успехов. С уважением Е.Пономаренко

Parzulova, Mariyana

Тема статьи исключительна актуальна. Хорошо придуманная структура работы. Четко выделены результаты. Все свидетельствует о большом умении автора представить весьма доступно свои наблюдения и результаты своего исследования. Желаю коллеге много успехов в будушей исследовательской работе!

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Большое спасибо за очень интересный и четко структурированный доклад! Я рада что Ваше исследование обогатило мои познания. Межкультурная коммуникация сегодня действительно является основной фундаментальной потребностью, а владение иностранным языком - важным условием и фактором успешного и плодотворного общения. Интерактивные методы – содействуют не только совершенствованию образовательного процесса и увеличиванию его еффективности посредством обратной связи, но укреплению мотивации студентов, стимулированию их конкурентноспособности, и особенно упрочиванию их сплоченности, взаимопомощи, эмпатии и сопричасности, человеческой и спортивной этики. Все это имеет исключительное значение для реалной успеваемости каждого спортсмена и спортивного коллектива как целого. Желаю дальнейших успехов! Сердечно и с уважением! Димитрина

Zalevskaya Alexandra Alexandrovna

Уважаемая Лилия! Ваш доклад четко структурирован, содержит необходимые для работы такого жанра сведения. Используемый Вами набор интерактивных процедур вполне отвечает задачам современного обучения второму языку. Результаты эксперимента описаны достаточно подробно. Желаю Вам успеха в педагогической и исследовательской деятельности! Залевская Александра Александровна

Kosykh Elena

Работа очень интересная. Эксперименты, как и интерактивные методики и приёмы обучения, очень актуальны. Учитывая смену каналов восприятия у современных студентов, важно вовлечение их в деятельностное обучение, о-творчество. Успехов Вам!.
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Уважаемая Лилия! Считаю, что Ваше исследование имеет большое практическое значение; особый интерес представляет исследование результативности предложенных методик и - как следствие - констатация роста познавательного интереса студентов. Дело в том, что, на мой взгляд, многие из указанных Вами методов и приемов можно использовать и при преподавании теоретических курсов (в т.ч. и на английском языке). Большое Вам спасибо! С уважением, Лейла Мирзоева

Balasanian Mariana

Уважаемая Лилия, работа очень интересная и актуальная. Особенно интересным мне показались результаты проведенного эксперимента. Желаю дальнейших успехов.

Redkva Yaroslav Petrovych

Уважаемая Лилия, Как преподаватель польского языка (как второго славянского на филологическом факультете ЧНУ) могу сказать, что предложенные Вами интерактивные методики в межкультурной коммуникации или межличностном взаимодействии путем внешнего диалога - это сегодня наиболее эффективное средство изучения языка в различных профессиональных группах. Проверено на практике, в том числе - и моей. Спасибо. С уважением, Ярослав Редьква

Yekshembeyeva Lyudmila

Уважаемая коллега! Ваш личный опыт работы и творческий подход позволили обогатить интерактивную платформу методического обеспечения учебного процесса. Особенно мне понравилось, что помимо ввода спортивной лексики, вы делаете акцент на соревновательности как особом качестве спортсменов и на умении презентовать и себя, и результаты своей деятельности! Успехов Вам и новых находок. Л. Екшембеева

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Уважаемая Лилия! С современной практике преподавания иностранного языка эффективно применяются различные методы и приемы, способствующие интерактивной деятельности. Несомненно Ваш метод показывает новые возможности, связанные с налаживанием межличностного взаимодействия путем внешнего диалога в процессе усвоения материала. Тема очень востребована и актуальна. Желаю дальнейших успехов. С уважением Е.Пономаренко

Parzulova, Mariyana

Тема статьи исключительна актуальна. Хорошо придуманная структура работы. Четко выделены результаты. Все свидетельствует о большом умении автора представить весьма доступно свои наблюдения и результаты своего исследования. Желаю коллеге много успехов в будушей исследовательской работе!

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая коллега! Большое спасибо за очень интересный и четко структурированный доклад! Я рада что Ваше исследование обогатило мои познания. Межкультурная коммуникация сегодня действительно является основной фундаментальной потребностью, а владение иностранным языком - важным условием и фактором успешного и плодотворного общения. Интерактивные методы – содействуют не только совершенствованию образовательного процесса и увеличиванию его еффективности посредством обратной связи, но укреплению мотивации студентов, стимулированию их конкурентноспособности, и особенно упрочиванию их сплоченности, взаимопомощи, эмпатии и сопричасности, человеческой и спортивной этики. Все это имеет исключительное значение для реалной успеваемости каждого спортсмена и спортивного коллектива как целого. Желаю дальнейших успехов! Сердечно и с уважением! Димитрина

Zalevskaya Alexandra Alexandrovna

Уважаемая Лилия! Ваш доклад четко структурирован, содержит необходимые для работы такого жанра сведения. Используемый Вами набор интерактивных процедур вполне отвечает задачам современного обучения второму языку. Результаты эксперимента описаны достаточно подробно. Желаю Вам успеха в педагогической и исследовательской деятельности! Залевская Александра Александровна

Kosykh Elena

Работа очень интересная. Эксперименты, как и интерактивные методики и приёмы обучения, очень актуальны. Учитывая смену каналов восприятия у современных студентов, важно вовлечение их в деятельностное обучение, о-творчество. Успехов Вам!.
PARTNERS
 
 
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