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TRENDS OF CENTAUREA JACEA L. SEED PRODUCTIVITY

TRENDS OF CENTAUREA JACEA L. SEED PRODUCTIVITYTRENDS OF CENTAUREA JACEA L. SEED PRODUCTIVITY
Kokar Nataliya, lecturer

Vasil Parpan, head of a chair, doctor of biology, full professor

Precarpathian National University named after V. Stefanyk, Ukraine

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";

the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;

The article described the trends of Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraceae) seed productivity. Analyzed the reasons for indicators change of seed productivity. Іdentified the main factors which affecting the coefficient of seed productivity.

Keywords: Centaurea jacea L., capitulum, seed productivity, coefficient of the seed productivity, agents of biological control

 

For successful implementation of biodiversity maintenance it is essential to understand the trends of the species reproductive biology and its specificity of generative features that jointly with ecological factors provide with the seed productivity.

One of the most significant indicators that characterizes the adaptation level to the specific ecological conditions is the seed productivity study. Due to its results it can be determined the occurrence of rejuvenation process in the given population.

The aim of this research included the study of Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraceae) seed productivity trends, the analysis of the data received, the determination of the basic factors mostly affecting the seed productivity.

Methodology and object of research

The object of given research included four populations of C. jacea under different conditions of biogeocenosis usage mode:

Рopulation I is situated on the mesophilous meadow of the south-west slope at the bank lake which enters in composition of association community of Festucetum (pratensis) stenactiosum (annua), next to the arboretum “Druzhba” of the Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankovsk.

Рopulation II is growing on the open area of the dry mountain meadow which enters in composition of association community of Agrostidetum (tenuis) festucosum (pratensis) on the mountain Maliava, next to the village Dora, Nadvorna district, Ivano-Frankovsk region.

Рopulation III is situated on the dry mountain meadow which enters in composition of association community of Dactylus (glomerata) luzulosum (campestris) at the Yablunitsa pass, in the south-west outskirts of the village Yablunitsa, Nadvorna district, Ivano-Frankovsk region.

Рopulation IV is situated on the present bottomland meadow which enters in composition of association community of Festucetum (pratensis) galiosum (palustre), on the river bank “Glubokii potok”, in the south outskirt of the village Dubrava, Tiachev district, Zakarpattia region.

The seed productivity (SP) of the studied populations has been inestigated over a period of 2008-2010 by I. V. Vainagiy [1] methodology. The indices of potential seed productivity (PSP) and actual seed productivity (ASP) as well as the coefficient of the seed productivity (CSP) have been implemented for its description. The gathering was being carried out within the mass seeds ripening. The monocarpic generative branches of C. jacea was chosen as a primary registration unit.

Results and discussion

In the process of studying it has been established that the ripening of fruit in the capitulums of C. jacea occurs in the second half of August and is in progress till the end of September in all studied populations (fig. 1). The long-term process of fructification is connected with non simultaneous growth of tubular blooms in blossom cluster of C. jacea as well as with the rate of its fertilization.

Table 1

Level of variability of Centaurea jacea generative sphere quantitative

variables in the studied populations

№ of

population

Years

of research

Morphometric parameters

Number of capitulums in the specimen, pcs.

Number of side branches II-order, pcs.

Diameter of capitulum,cm

M±m

V, %

M±m

V, %

M±m

V, %

1

2008

14,1 ±0,45

25,21

5,0 ±0,11

10,86

9,4 ±0,17

8,91

2009

9,3 ±0,31

16,36

4,0 ±0,12

15,43

9,4 ±0,11

5,92

2010

6,8 ±0,15

10,51

4,7 ±0,21

22,49

9,3 ±0,11

6,01

2

2008

7,6 ±0,20

12,68

2,9 ±0,10

16,89

8,1 ±0,15

9,52

2009

6,9 ±0,17

9,67

3,8 ±0,22

28,80

8,6 ±0,22

12,92

2010

4,5 ±0,12

8,56

2,9 ±0,15

26,01

7,9 ±0,24

15,25

3

2008

14,7 ±0,43

27,02

6,5 ±0,23

17,78

7,3 ±0,22

15,34

2009

7,1 ±0,19

14,54

6,0 ±0,25

21,38

6,8 ±0,18

13,05

2010

8,6 ±0,24

18,32

6,9 ±0,21

14,99

7,8 ±0,31

19,69

4

2008

6,6 ±0,16

15,75

4,9 ±0,11

11,62

10,2 ±0,15

7,54

2009

8,8 ±0,28

17,39

4,0 ±0,25

32,17

10,0 ±0,19

9,39

2010

7,6 ±0,14

11,47

4,9 ±0,16

16,51

10,5 ±0,18

8,59

Footnote: M - arithmetic mean; m - mean deviation; V – coefficient of variation, %

The research results demonstrate that the diameter of the capitulum is the sufficiently persistent indicator (fig. 2) and has the insignificant percentage the variation (table 1) in all monitoring populations of C. jacea.

Fig. 1. Centaurea jacea appearance of seeds: A - milky ripeness; B - mature seed

In the population I the diameter of capitulum is semipermanent over a period of 2008-2010 and the variation coefficient is too weak - 6,01-8,91% (fig. 2). But the number of capitulum on the monocarpic scions (shoots) of C. jacea is considerable. In 2008 their number was the biggest - 14,1±0,45, by 2010 the capitulums’ number began to reduce rapidly. The considerable variation coefficient is 10,51-25,21%(table 1). The similar situation was in the population II: the capitulums’ diameter was more or less stable but the variation coefficient was average with 8,56-12,68%. The capitulums’ number was gradually reducing from 2008 to 2010.

Maximum of capitulums on the model monocarpic scion of C. jacea was recorded in the population III in 2008 - 14,7 ± 0,43, the coefficient of variation was considerable and totaled 27,02%. In 2009 the number of capitulums reduced considerably by 7,1 ± 0,19, and in 2010 increased again by 8,6 ± 0,24. The capitulums’ diameter was stable (fig. 2; table 1).

The most stable quantitative variables of C. jacea generative sphere were recorded in population IV, where the diameter and the capitulums’ number didn’t almost change over a period of 2008-2010 (fig. 2). The coefficient of variation is weak. It proves the high degree of stable indicators.

Having determined and analyzed the SP variables it can be traced the trend of given population to the process of reproduction over a period of several years. Thus the SP dynamics can be traced in the populations of C. jacea at the monitoring areas.

Fig. 2. Diameter and capitulums’ number change in populations
of Centaurea jacea over a period of 2008-2010.

Explanation: - capitulums’ number per specimen in %: - capitulums’ diameter in %.

X direction – years of research and areas: 1-3 – population I (2008-2010 correspondingly), 4-6 - population II (2008-2010), 7-9 - population III (2008-2010), 10-12 - population IV (2008-2010).

The comparative analysis of SP has been carried out in the four populations of C. jacea. The results of SP research of the studied species have been introduced in the table 2. The given results prove that PSP as well as ASP were changing significantly over a period of all studied years (fig. 3).

The minimum value of PSP and ASP were recorded in the  population II (table 2).

The maximum index of PSP was recorded in the population III in 2008 (fig. 3). The main indicator, however, that characterizes the SP efficiency in the studied populations best of all is the coefficient of the seed production (CSP) (table 3).

Having analyzed the obtained in all studied populations of C. jacea CSP results it can be drawn a conclusion that the best conditions for the growth of the given specimen of this species are in the areas of growth of the  population II and population IV. The maximum CSP is 86, 8% in the population II, despite the indices of PSP and ASP are low (fig. 3) and the number of enrichment shoots and capitulums on the model monocarpic scion in the population II is also the lowest (fig. 2, table 1). It proves that almost all seeds which start the formation in the capitulum are not affected and formed into ripe and full-grown. The same trend is in the population IV. The CSP is 81%. The PSP and ASP are significant and the coefficient of variation is average.

Table 2

Seed productivity in populations of Centaurea jacea

of population

Years

of

research

Potential seed productivity (PSP),pcs.

Actual seed productivity (ASP), pcs.

Coefficient of the

seed productivity

(CSP), %

М

m

V, %

М

m

V, %

1

2008

702,2

23,98

17,07

499,1

9,26

9,28

71,08

2009

482,6

12,61

13,06

332,5

5,39

8,11

68,9

2010

431,4

12,47

14,45

319,6

7,09

11,09

74,08

2

2008

434,4

11,72

13,49

359,2

4,86

6,76

82,69

2009

450,3

13,49

14,98

389,6

5,06

6,49

86,52

2010

309,2

9,82

15,88

281,9

3,58

6,35

91,17

3

2008

943,3

21,84

11,58

710,4

36,90

25,97

75,31

2009

515,5

9,80

9,51

328,6

14,15

21,54

63,74

2010

554,4

11,90

10,73

466,0

16,16

17,34

84,05

4

2008

527,8

8,89

8,42

418,7

12,18

14,55

79,33

2009

646,7

21,74

16,81

571,1

16,89

14,79

88,31

2010

645,2

15,61

12,10

486,2

14,56

14,97

75,36

Footnote: M - arithmetic mean; m - mean deviation; V – coefficient of variation, %

  Fig. 3. The quantitative indices of PSP and ASP change in the studied
populations of Centaurea jacea over a period of 2008-2010.

  Explanation: - quantitative indices of PSP, - quantitative indices of ASP. X direction – years of research and areas: 1-3 – population I (2008-2010 correspondingly), 4-6 - population II (2008-2010), 7-9 - population III (2008-2010), 10-12 - population IV (2008-2010).

The minimum CSP was recorded in the population I (71,35%) and the population III (74,37%), despite the number of capitulums on the model monocarpic scion in these populations was the biggest and totaled correspondingly 10,1 ± 2,14 and 10,13 ± 2,32 (table 3).

As the regeneration of populations with the specimen of various vitality is exceptionalby generative reproduction, the ration between ASP and PSP can be interpreted like a potential of stressful reaction of plants' populations.

The data of C. jacea CSP considering the conditions of the growth area allow to state about the ability of populations to species self-maintenace and vitality as a whole.

The reduction of SP can be connected with the high density, trampling down and mowing down, intraspecific competition of specimen in the populations as well as with the effect of biotic factors.

The specimen of C. jacea in the population I and population II can produce a number of ripe seeds as there are lots of capitulums on the model monocarpic scion. However, it can be observed the abrupt reduction of their SP.

Table 3

Basic quantitative indices of seed productivity in the
populations of
Centaurea jacea change

№  of population

Coefficient of the seed productivity (CSP), %

Number of capitulums in the specimen, pcs.

1

71,35 ± 1,5

10,1 ± 2,14

2

86,8 ± 2,45

6,33 ± 0,94

3

74,37 ± 5,88

10,13 ± 2,32

4

81,0 ± 3,83

7,66 ± 0,64

A number of researchers believe that the meteorological conditions of the specific year tip the balance as a result of which is the seed productivity change year after year especially in the period of budding, flowering and fruit ripening. They think that out of the external factors the weather conditions, coincided with the phenological stages, formation of fruit and seeds always influence the number of seeds.

As a result of carried out researches it has been established that under phenology and climatic factors the population II and population III had the similar indices [4]. The results, however, differ greatly in these populations. Consequently, it can’t be considered the meteorological conditions as a factor that influences considerably the species SP.

The negative factor that affects the reduction of seeds number in the capitulum is the anthropogenic factor – mowing down, trampling down (recreation, grazing). The stronger factor is zoogenic – the impact of insects-consorts so called agents of biological control. The agents of biological control are the living organisms which in the process of coevolution established such trophic ties as a result of which bring the considerable damage to the specimen-determinant affecting the number of his population [2, 3].

C. jacea is the eurytopic species with the wide ecological amplitude, able to seize the area displacing the other species. There are, however, the insects – agents of biological control, which controling its number by affecting seed productivity [2, 3]. The adult insects lay the eggs into the capitulum at different stages of their evolution and after the appearance of larva from the egg they start eating the seed buds and tubular flowers. It affects CSP significantly.

Fig. 4. Capitulums of Centaurea jacea damaged by insect larvae: A - Urophora affinis; B - Terellia virens

To the agents of biological control which mostly influence the reduction of SP in particular CSP refer the next species of insects: two representatives of snout beetles family (Curculionidae) - Larinus minutus, L. obtusus, one species of gelechiid moths family (Gelechiidae) - Metzneria paucipunctella and four species of fruit fly family (Tephritidae) - Urophora affinis, U. quadrifasciata, Terellia virens, Chaetorellia acrolophi. The larvas of snout beetles insects damage mostly the capitulums of C. jacea especially Larinus minutus which were found more in the population I and population III and they were found less in the population II and population IV. Probably it can be explained with the presence of national motor road H 09 not far from the population I and population III. It passes through Lvov, Ivano-Frankovsk and Zakarpattia regions. It starts from Mukachevo, passes through Tiachev, Yablunitsa pass, Ivano-Frankovsk and ends in Lvov. In the outskirts of Ivano-Frankovsk Larinus minutus can be seen very often especially on the meadows nearby the lakes (population I) and the rivers: the Bystritsa Solotvinskaia and the Bystritsa Nadvornianskaia where people often rest. Many people stay at the Yablunitsa pass nearby the area of the population III growth (fig. 4).

In the process of research it has been found out one more conformity. In the population I and population II the model monocarpic scion have the considerable range of enrichment with lots of branches. Such an intensified branching we consider like a reaction of the organism to the action of unfavourable conditions of anthropogenic and zoogenic type. It’s a fact of common knowledge that the process of mowing intensifies the plants branching but the actions of the biological control agents make the plant to form more generative branches so long as it is raised the possibility that not all the capitulums on the monocarpic scion will be damaged.

Conclusion

Due to the researches it has been established that the C. jacea is characterized with the regular seeds formation and distinguished with the different level of seed productivity. It proves the sufficient level of adaptation to the natural-climatic conditions of the growth area. The analysis of the C. jacea seed productivity indices indicates the ecological plasticity of a species. But the generative reproduction of this species has been depressed and observed like an additional aspect in the C. jacea self-maintenance of populations.

The researches indicate that the dynamics of SP in different years depends not only on the biological species characteristics, phytocoenotic conditions but also to a great extent on the biogenic factors which are both positive and negative. On the one hand the processes of pollination and blossom dust sprouting as well as fertilization and seminal primordial into the seeds depend on the number of insects-pollinators. On the other hand injurious insects, the agents of the biological control eat seed buds and tubular flowers in the capitulums of C. jacea reducing SP.

The basic function of the biocontrol agents is that they are the natural regulator of the abundance of the given species. Being the ruderal species of the poic grass stand, С. jacea occupies its environmental niche in it. As a consortium corethe С. jacea creates the elementary natural ecological system the damage of which will affect the impoverishment of biodiversity.

 

References:

  1. Вайнагий И. В. 1974. О методике изучения семенной продуктивности растений / / Ботанический журнал. - Т. 59, № 6. - С. 826-831.
  2. Кокар Н. В. 2011. Консорти Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraceae) в Украинских Карпатах / Н. В. Кокар / / Вестник Львовского национального университета. Серия биологическая. - Вып. 57. - С. 151-160.
  3. Кокар Н. В. 2012. Агенты биологического контроля Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraceae), выявленные при исследованиях консортивних связей / Н. В. Кокар // Экология и ноосферология. - Т. 23, № 1-2. - С. 51-57.
  4. Фенологические аспекты развития ценопопуляций Centaurea jacea L. (Asteraceae) в экологических условиях Прикарпатья, Закарпатья и Украинских Карпат / В. Кокар // Популяционная экология растений: современное состояние, точки роста. Сумы. 2012. - С.188-195.

 

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Comments: 7

Mykytyn Tetiana

Очень интересная статья, проведенные исследования очень хорошо проработаны статистически и представлены в таблицах и диаграммах для лучшего восприятия информации. Авторам желаю успехов и вдохновения и побыстрее закончить написание диссертации! С уважением, Микитин Татьяна.

Kokar Nataliya

Большое спасибо!!! С уважением, авторы!

Sarsekova Dani

Уважаемая Наталья! Сколько популяции известно в природе? Вами проделана трудоемкая работа, довод но интересный вид для сохранения биоразнообразия. Желаю Вам у успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С ув. Дани

Kokar Nataliya

Уважаемая Дани, большое спасибо за комментарий. Я не понимаю, что Вы подразумеваете под вопросом сколько популяций известно в природе??? В природе есть множество популяций разных видов растений. Объектом моих исследований являются четыре ценопопуляции василька лугового (Сentaurea jacea L., Asteracea). Это всё подробно и чётко написано в данной статье. С уважением, Кокар Наталия!

Azmaiparashvili maia

Ваша статья весьма интересна. Флористический анализ: труд интересен. Какими методами достигнуты результаты? Желаю дальнейших успехов. Maia Azmaiparashvili

Kokar Nataliya

Большое спасибо за комментарий и вопрос. Я не проводила флористический анализ. Тема моего доклада изучение семенной продуктивности василька лугового и влияния на результат его семенификации климатических, антропогенных, биотических (зоологических) факторов окружающей среды. Семенную продуктивность в исследуемых четырёх ценопопуляциях изучали на протяжении 2008-2010 гг. по общепринятой методике И. В. Вайнагия. Для характеристики семенной продуктивности использовали показатели потенциальной (ПСП) и фактической (ФСП) семенной продуктивности, а также коэффициент семенификации (КС). Сбор материала проводили в период массового созревания семян. Элементарной учётной единицей семенной продуктивности нами был выбран монокарпический генеративный побег василька лугового. С уважением, Кокар Наталия.

Kokar Nataliya

Уважаемые коллеги задавайте вопросы, комментируйте. Кому тяжело читать на англ. языке есть русская версия этой статьи над окном комментариев. Буду рада ответить на все ваши вопросы. С уважением, автор.
Comments: 7

Mykytyn Tetiana

Очень интересная статья, проведенные исследования очень хорошо проработаны статистически и представлены в таблицах и диаграммах для лучшего восприятия информации. Авторам желаю успехов и вдохновения и побыстрее закончить написание диссертации! С уважением, Микитин Татьяна.

Kokar Nataliya

Большое спасибо!!! С уважением, авторы!

Sarsekova Dani

Уважаемая Наталья! Сколько популяции известно в природе? Вами проделана трудоемкая работа, довод но интересный вид для сохранения биоразнообразия. Желаю Вам у успехов в дальнейших исследованиях. С ув. Дани

Kokar Nataliya

Уважаемая Дани, большое спасибо за комментарий. Я не понимаю, что Вы подразумеваете под вопросом сколько популяций известно в природе??? В природе есть множество популяций разных видов растений. Объектом моих исследований являются четыре ценопопуляции василька лугового (Сentaurea jacea L., Asteracea). Это всё подробно и чётко написано в данной статье. С уважением, Кокар Наталия!

Azmaiparashvili maia

Ваша статья весьма интересна. Флористический анализ: труд интересен. Какими методами достигнуты результаты? Желаю дальнейших успехов. Maia Azmaiparashvili

Kokar Nataliya

Большое спасибо за комментарий и вопрос. Я не проводила флористический анализ. Тема моего доклада изучение семенной продуктивности василька лугового и влияния на результат его семенификации климатических, антропогенных, биотических (зоологических) факторов окружающей среды. Семенную продуктивность в исследуемых четырёх ценопопуляциях изучали на протяжении 2008-2010 гг. по общепринятой методике И. В. Вайнагия. Для характеристики семенной продуктивности использовали показатели потенциальной (ПСП) и фактической (ФСП) семенной продуктивности, а также коэффициент семенификации (КС). Сбор материала проводили в период массового созревания семян. Элементарной учётной единицей семенной продуктивности нами был выбран монокарпический генеративный побег василька лугового. С уважением, Кокар Наталия.

Kokar Nataliya

Уважаемые коллеги задавайте вопросы, комментируйте. Кому тяжело читать на англ. языке есть русская версия этой статьи над окном комментариев. Буду рада ответить на все ваши вопросы. С уважением, автор.
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