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Importance of increasing national economies competitiveness in the epoch of globalization has considered in the article, competitiveness of Ukraine on the world markets by international methodology has analyzed, and problem aspects have outlined.
Keywords: competition, competitiveness, rating, world economy, national economy, globalization, international competition, index of the global competitiveness.
A world economy on the modern stage of her development is characterized to strengthening of integration processes that acquire world scales. Globalization is the single world system that arose up as a result of association of national economies, is based on moving of capitals, informative openness of society, the rapid technological updating, lowering of tariff barriers, liberalization motion of commodities and capitals, and on communication rapprochement.
The problem of country competitiveness becomes more actual in the conditions of global fight for competitive edges on the world markets of commodities, services, capitals, labour force, finances and information. Accordingly, an international competitiveness in present time becomes a key parameter that determines the location of the country in geopolitical space and in the structure of global economic connections. This parameter can not be examined as especially economic. Potential of competitiveness is determined by difficult combination of political, economic, social and cultural factors .
The competitiveness of the country is expressed in the increasing role and authority of country on the international arena, ability of the country to settle urgent problems in society, upgrading quality of commodities and services. The decision problem of the achievement economy competitiveness, field and enterprise is directly related to the exposure of determining her factors, that can cover the picture of the spheres possible adjusting these processes and instruments of management an international competitiveness.
Competitiveness of the country - is ability of country economy, country to participate in the international trade, to retain and extend certain segments on world markets, to produce products corresponding to the world standards. She is determined by the technical - economical level of production in a country, by the size of production charges, quality produced goods, development of the infrastructure, and presence of absolute and relative advantages.
Namely, competitive is follow to count such national economy that provides in its development:
1) sustainable increasing of the country population life on the basis permanent increasing of the labor productivity;
2) achevements and maintenance by national enterprises on the world markets such positions , when their goods and services successfully realized;
3) the effective using of the financial means that accumulate on international investment markets;
4) innovative orientation on the modern informative base;
5) socio-economic progress and effective anti-crisis adjusting .
The competitive condition of Ukraine in the conditions of eurointegration processes is characterized by that in the last few years the level of the country economy remains unstable henceforth, but not having regard to it our country searches the ways of economy level improvement .
It is needed to mark that in the world economic space Ukraine is on enough low positions that conditioned: by reduction of part to industry in GDP, by negative tendencies in macroeconomic environment, by the level of financial market development.
In general, there are different methodical approaches to the estimation of country competitiveness. Most known are integral indexes of competitiveness that the World economic forum (WEF) and the International institute of management development (IMD) calculate. Unfortunately, in rating of IMD Ukraine the last years was not included, so as rating was limited to the estimation of 60-ти countries, macroeconomic indexes, indexes of country institutes and infrastructures efficiency that considerably higher then Ukrainian.
Accordingly to data of World Economic Forum Report (WEF) in Index of global competitiveness rating for 2011 year Ukraine took the 82-th place among 142-th countries, walking up seven positions, comparatively with the last year( a 89 place among 139 countries of the world in 2010 ; in 2009р. 82 place among 133 countries, in 2008р. - 115 among 131 countries). Herewith weight of economic indicators in the general rating is about 25 %%, factors of the technological development and innovativeness - 50 %% and factors related to quality of public and country institutes, other 25 % .
The index of the global competitiveness takes into account 12 key factors, in particular such: condition of country and private institutes; infrastructure; macroeconomic stability; health protection and primary education; higher and postgraduate education; efficiency of commodity markets; efficiency of labor-market; technological readiness; efficiency of financial markets; market volume; business "development"; innovations.
A general index is basis of global competitiveness index and consists of sub-indexes about that talked higher. His calculation takes place by comparison of each analyzable indexes values and calculation indexes on each of them. On the basis of the got results country assigned some location in rating, what straight proportional to her points, namely, the higher points, the higher rating of country among other countries of the world, thus, the higher her competitiveness.
The basis methodology of global indexes competitiveness calculating is taking into account of statistical indexes row, and also expert questioning. Positions of Ukraine are explained by the raw material and raw semimaterial structure of export, high energy intensity of production, absence of innovative advancement and reliable defense of intellectual property, insufficient recreation of productive funds.
We can mark in addition,, that largely such factors prevent to strengthening of competitiveness, as a low level of financial-credit system development; lack of country infrastructure development; insufficient harmonization of the Ukrainian standards quality with international; insufficiency of the country targeted funding of scientific and technical developments; large degree of capital assets wearing out; low level of technological equipped that requires bringing in considerable volumes of investments for possibility development highly technological productions. All of it does not give an opportunity to Ukraine to be equated with the standards of world market.
For overcoming of existent competitiveness increase problems consider for expedient realization of measures such basic directions, as: harmonization of quality products standards according to world standards; adjusting of modern infrastructure(especially financial institutes); strengthening of co-operation and integrations; adjusting of collaboration between producers; increasing of technological innovations, bringing in investments and innovations that is the basic source of economy competitiveness .
Having potential and possibilities to provide competitiveness on the European and world markets, we must use all present possibilities for this purpose.