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Technical and Agricultural College of Soroca, Moldova
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Many changes in training of future managers intervene today. The period of new life conditions, when the students are more intelligent and active, the value of psycho-pedagogical knowledge become primordial. That is why, without it is impossible to get a suitable education and training for the future agricultural managers.
Keywords: psycho-pedagogical knowledge, agricultural manager, educational process, psychological features, professional training
Introduction:One of the primary tasks in schools, where there is the training of future managers, is to increase the efficiency of education. The objective can be achieved in several ways: by reshuffling its approach towards training content of natural reality; by sustained promotion of continuous improvement trend of organising the students’ way of learning in order to boost efficiency of materials assimilation; professionally, from the psychological aspect, highlighting, and using students’individual and age particularities during Training.
To take into account the psychological characteristics, it is important that a teacher knows the specifics of the student's personality, his interests, skills, character and temperament and his overall attitude towards learning. It is necessary that the teacher had some psycho-pedagogical culture, ie a general background of psycho-pedagogical knowledge, to be able to find the appropriate work processes, that ultimately may enhance the effects of pedagogical influence on his disciples.
Without a proper psychological culture, the teacher will incomparably spend much more efforts and will, undoubtedly, get more modest results. Results and discussion
Psychological knowledge, together with the teaching gained over the years and personal experience make the foundation of teacher skill.
Undeniably, this does not mean that he already has a set of precise and generally accepted prescriptions to resolve all cases, quick recipes that help to deal with any specific problems. Thus, as experienced and skilled a teacher was or handled the main processes of training and education, without a deep psychological competence based on adequate knowledge of the student and specific situation, he will not get desired results. To train and educate is necessary to know the psychology of followers. Conversely, their psychological knowledge or the evolution of their psychology is done most effectively in the tangible process of training and education. Therein lies the unshakable unity of psychological science and practice of teaching.
The available system of knowledge enables teachers in each particular case to feel safer in their assessments, actions, to activate it with confidence; to decipher more promptly, correctly and convincing a student’s act; to determine causes of unexpected conflict between students. Psychological culture requires a teacher’s understanding to enter students’ inner world and respect the needs of their age trends, to have their requirements and assessments based on his position, which the student has already formed; to have the ability to catch all complicated nuances of his psyche, to perceive and see with his eyes the real world lived by student.
A survey of agricultural colleges showed that students themselves claim his teacher to have a certain psychological level of culture, stating that he "needs to understand the student" to "enter into his soul", to "combine severity and love ". Unfortunately, there are teachers who do not understand the information of knowledge, compliance or respect of psychological peculiarities in teaching students without looking to break into his inner world, his troubling subtext nor the experiences they seek. This category of teachers build relationships with their followers, deviating from the scheme "personality - personality," and adopt an authoritarian positions, of dictate, showing students that they are their superiors, thus controlling them rather than teaching, demanding more rather than self-demanding.
Practice shows that, by mainly focusing on promoting subjects, finding and applying effective methods of work, teachers often omit from their teaching field the psychological aspect of this process. Many of them encounter difficulties in determining age-specific peculiarities, limited to features such as: active or passive student, read or unread, industrious or lazy, or capitalising on special characteristics of students that stands out either by success or by conflict behaviour. The achievements in science are often unknown or overlooked by virtue of conservatism that exists in education and a resisting position against new and progressive ideas. Experience has shown that obtaining superior results by teachers is largely due to accounting knowledge and respect of future managers’ psychological peculiarities, therefore we will focus on the peculiarities of the structure of volitional qualities of managers, many of which are formed in the their training - the main pillar in managerial activity is the will.
The willpower is the psychological and complex process that consists of an individual's ability to initiate actions, to carry or suspend them by engendering an effort to overcome obstacles arising in the way of achieving goals set. The process will involve a subjective set of steps: analysing of reasons for conduct, formulating goals, making decision, achieving the set goals. The manager manager receives the information for these efforts by subjective sensations and perceptions. Based on researches conducted in some agricultural enterprises in the former county and current district Soroca, it was determined that in a manager combined or mixed perceptions prevail.
The highest percentage is typical for the section head 74, 9%, 73.4% for the foreman and 54.5% for the director. If we compare the management levels, we find that by increasing the level of management the visual sensations relatively decrease - head of department has the lowest - 13.3%; the director - 18.8% while the relative auditory sensations increase, the brigadier - 1.5% (the least) and 5.5% for the master. The willpower has a superior role in achieving solid business control. It is impossible to commit any volitional action, if there is no focus for its execution, attention is more evident like an outlet of the process of perception, thought processes. The management activity is primarily a voluntary activity, therefore voluntary attention prevails or it is more pronounced. Research show that leaders aged 25 to 45 have the highest attention intensity. At the age of 45-50 is a decrease in attention span is evident.
During the last placement "Production Problem Solving" by students in final year at Technical and Agricultural College of Soroca, it was determined that within one hour a manager transferred his attention on different problems and situations 22 times, which at first sight did not appear to have been linked. If there are no obstacles and difficulties the willpower can never manifest itself.
The analysis of volitional actions, carried out by the manager during his leadership, shows that in one way or another there is a manifestation of a one human quality or another.
Volitional qualities do not present anything separately from other sides of personality activity.
The basis of an intellectual activity is volitional action.
Professional training - skills and knowledge - form the basis for delivery of some or other volitional qualities in greater or less quantities, depending on the vision of the world and emotional load of its leader.
To modernize the training content means to adapt it to the recommendations from psychological science, build it on a strong teaching foundation. The psychologisation process of the training or training methods involves effective transition from the passive forms of learning to active, independent and creative knowledge assimilation during problematized courses. This will help students get rid of the psychological position formed during earlier years, namely to place themselves in a passive role as people who should be given knowledge about everything and for all problems in life. Nominally, under the influence of psychology, pedagogy began to pay attention to the development of student thinking. The development of thinking primarily requires an awareness of its law which it obeys, as well it determines its formation. Based on psychological research of situations-problems and their developing process, a new method of training was developed - the problematical method. It is a clear example of how psychological theory influenced the pedagogical practice.
Knowing child psychology means to understanding that the teacher's expression of confidence in his efforts has a strong influence on his development.
A teacher who permanently expresses confidence in the student’s possibilities, praise him for his potential successes rather than actual, awakes in the student latent reserves of memory, thought to accelerate his development, the explosion of a truly creative momentum. Trust in students has a force, one might say, magic.
One of the psychological principles of education claims that relying on student’s positive and valuable qualities serves as incentives or stimuli for personality development in the desired direction. These qualities, however, are mostly seen in with the negative sides, that dominate many of the positive ones.
Teacher's skill lies in the track that is carefully studying the personality, to find those positive potentialities. Undoubtedly, it also requires a great pedagogical optimism, but psychologically positive personality is very effective in prevention work and developing the correct personality and conduct. This process has a double psychological influence: on one hand detecting positive qualities has a good influence on a future manager, because knowing them, he will not proceed with further reproach, and on the other positive aspects can be drawn given revealing an interesting activity for him that will apply to all abilities.
A multitude of cases from the teaching practice tell us about the changes involved in training future managers and his personality as a result of a teacher’s confidence in him.
Conclusions Teaching practice and everyday life show that the new conditions, when students are less developed, more active, but also psychologically more difficult and not at all easy to penetrate into their inner world, the psycho-pedagogical knowledge is crucial, because without it education and training will not be adequate. The structure analysis of volitional qualities of managers at different levels makes it possible to make the following conclusions:a.
The closer management activities are to the executor, the more retention and control of oneself it requires. It should be emphasized that this especially applies to the executors, who understand more than anybody else how their direct manager should be;
b. The higher a manager’s position is, initiative and independence should be more pronounced.