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Odessa National Polytechnic University, Ukraine
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In the report new forms of moderm communication are considered as aggressive and shocking methods of influence on society. On examples of advertising of post-Soviet and Western countries will be consider the main components of “aggressive context” of advertisements. Particular importance in the work have social and cultural contexts in which modern person lives, which is also have a special interest for research topic of influence of media space aggression on person. Such issues as media influence, changing cultural and social values and promotion new forms of communication is the main issues of the report.
Keywords: modern society, aggresion, shocking advertising, influence, advertising, human consciousness.
We live in a post-industrial world, where foundation of the existence and development is information. Technologies play major role in modern information space for impact on human consciousness. These technologies are implemented in many fields which work with information, especially the mass media, such as marketing, advertising, PR and other related fields. Now the basic elements of successful manipulation of human consciousness are an appeal to the secret desires and fears of the person.
The phenomenon of advertising in modern society is that it literally is a global communication, which is created by using the latest hardware and effective creative technology. It is characterized by a high rate of proliferation and the huge power of influence. For the full impact on the contemporary postmodern society advertising should have an increasingly strong pressure on consumers through the use of unusual, non-trivial methods. And, therefore, in our and in western countries, managers are actively searching for a new "acute expression" in the design of advertising, have been developing creative technologies and innovative advertising solutions. And, in general, it appears that if the advertising communication carries the negative elements that impact on the audience, then this effect can be much enhanced, which contributs to a dominant position of advertising in the media space [Kaftanjiev 2008: 21].
That is why a search of images that will be better remembered by consumers, leading to the appearance in advertising frankly shocking ideas bordering on epatage and debauchery. Of course, such images are stored, but they also lead to psychological disorders and inadequate perception of human reality.
As the search for more powerful and resonant methods of influence on the human mind and psycho now seem to be particularly relevant, we decided to analyze the impact of current aggressive components, which are widely used in the advertising media space, such as: emotional aggression, shock and violence in the commercial and social advertising. Researches of national and foreign scientists confirm the use of such elements can attract the consumer's attention to the product. This issue is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the field of advertising, psychological impact on human and social communications. Alpenshtal A., Kaftanjiev H., Kovrizhenko M., Pronin, E., Masek J., Shomova S. pay special attention to the shock elements in the modern media space and consider the appropriateness of their use in the social sphere. Kaftanjiev H. in his "Sex and violence in advertising" has analyzed and classified a huge layer of advertising, including modern, which uses only components of aggressive and deviant media content. Shomova S. in her article "Shock technology of modern advertising" had a clear parallel between the stun component in advertising and totemic prohibitions, taboos, and the violation of which have from immemorial times is internal prohibition and who are trying to break the modern media.
Today's consumers have become more demanding in advertising and on the other hand, are more indifferent in its perception, which is a consequence of the transition of our "present" at the "far far future of high technologies", about which we hear with the advent of personal computers and the Internet. Lack of Internet is now seen as a joke or a limitation of personal rights, and blocking access to the media information today is almost impossible (the system re-posts works perfectly in social networks and to highlight any event is always has a lot of witnesses with video cameras and phones that are ready to record everything that happens in real time). Consumers are now trying to "hide" and get away from a neverendless stream of meaningless information. So to still get an attention to posted message, advertisers are increasingly using aggressive forms of communication and provide shock elements in the advertising message.
From psychological point of view an effectiveness of performance of the shock and epatage is when it attacks cultural norms and traditions, people subconsciously defend their values ??and beliefs. And at this moment, without perpose, a person perceives message as actively as it can.
At the end, a person analyzes the message twice to remember it as clearly as possible and to understand why he “does not like it”. So this advertising images are remembered better because they are analyzed twice and maybe even reviewed couple times. At the time, the European press invent the term - shockvertising or "shock advertising" - to describe the powerful aggressive tendencies in the global advertising industry [Alpenshtal 2004].
Shock advertising- communication that implemented by demonstrating behavior deliberately violating social norms, rules and taboos. Keyword - "generally accepted". If we imagine the average level of public morality and the average level of morality of the target audience (TA), the shock advertising is between these two levels, that is, by the sense of CA it violates the "average" public morality, but not contrary to morality itself CA. In such a case, the person hears or sees not what I expected or what used to, but what he saw desn’t repelled him, conversely, it’s interested him, makes remember the message. Taking such communication, agreeing with what he saw, person internally and externally (through consumption of advertised brands) says about his social protest, throwing the community his little challenge [Volkov 2007].
Such advertising uses emotionally strong images that literally cut into the consciousness of the consumer and, as some practices, promote sales. Shocking images are often placed on the covers of tabloids, they are intriguing and thus "forced" to buy this new edition. On television, the trend is reflected in the impressive showing aspects of life - from intimate relations to sadism and murder (real shows, horror stories, documentary investigation of scandals and murders, etc.).
Consequently, in shock advertising audience's attention is drawn by the methods that are traditionally considered unacceptable for ethical, aesthetic and moral reasons. Due to such advertising can achieve two effects: to take public attention (about the consequences we do not speak) and / or consolidate the image of rebellious, strange and scandalous brand, as it determine the value of their brand and youth.
Recently, similar techniques outrageousness and shock are increasingly used in both commercial and social advertising.
According Oliviero Toscani, a former scandalous photos of Benneton, «provocation opposite of boredom: it exists when people are interested in and condemn. The art of advertising is based on provocation, because it offers a different perspective on things».It is guided by this principle of choosing strategy shocking impact on consumers, they tend to stand out from the mass brands by their behavior and the “new values” that brand will dictate.
!!!!Interestingly, the use of shock advertising is more common for companies with small advertising budgets, or those at risk and wants to stand out. These companies are banking on the fact that the media attention caused the scandalous campaign, several times the real spending on advertising. Less expensive, but more publicity! Shock advertising can quickly turn an unknown brand into a media sensation, and in the history of advertising there are many similar examples, such as Benneton, Calvin Klaine, Diesel, Sisley and others.
More often observed in commercial advertising techniques as shocking and epatage when the object is solely draw attention to a product, but not directly related with actual product. When the shock is not the goal, but a way of taking attention. Creative element in such advertisement shall neither mitigate nor emphasize the shock effect, since it is the set of all elements, such as - history, concept, reception (including shock elements), music, mood - which provide a strong influence on recipient. The shock here is the additional action is reinforcing factor, but, as it often happens, this gain has a higher impact than the product itself and advertising itself.
According to advertisers and practitioners, shock advertising - this is advertising, which "makes you forget about everything and go against your will, the perception of inherent information. Of course, the effect of such advertisement creates a "white sheet" in the human mind and the "white sheet easy to fill with any kind og information. A person deprived of stereotypes for a moment and get an opportunity to see the world with fresh look" [Shomova 2011]. But, we think this approach is quite dangerous, because, really, at the time of viewing the ads with the shock and aggressive components in the mind, "written" (affected) certain information, a new image of reality and changing the perception of this reality, that is, so-called "white sheet" writes new information which the consumer receives from the advertising message. But if the message, inherent in it, was designed to attract attention with the shock of consumer consciousness, then the information obtained can not have a positive charge, and can not build an adequate perception of reality. Anyway, aggression in advertising leads to an inadequate perception of life, that creates a different reality, which is not here, but it is dictated by the brands and their new ad campaigns.
The situation is slightly different to the promotion of social ideas in society. Because they are not very popular and it is very difficult to convey to people through their narrow-mindedness and closeness. The purpose of public service - to attract public attention to a particular problem of public / social / modern life. That is why more often social advertising points to certain social vices and shortcomings: high drug addiction, alcoholism, prostitution, AIDS and HIV issues, disrespect to the older generation, human trafficking, human rights, etc.
In social advertising shock components are widely used, as a way to present problems in the promotional materials, as we said earlier, it stored automatically in the case of coverage of social problems such influence can serve good purposes.
In this case, to settle in a consumer's memory, promoted images should be bright, sharp, trespassing. For example:
1) The organization "Mothers Against Genetic Engineering in food and the environment» (Madge) placed in several cities in New Zealand billboard featuring a woman who is on the knees and her four breasts attached milk machine. On her hip is a brand "GE" (genetic engineering).
2) The "spread" on the glass coach people - is advertising traffic was introduced by the Government of Brazil.
3) Wrestlers poaching decided to shock the public by naturalistic view posters, from which literally "climb guts."
In the social shock advertising, the main idea - it does not cross the border with “too real” life examples, not scare people to the point where they locking out of the world, and blocks any "scary" or "dangerous" information of his mind. In this case, advertising is ineffective and will not achieve its goal, that is, the consumer does not perceive the information sent to them or interpreted it not properly, which is even more undesirable. This is the difficulty of creating a social shocking ads - to find the boundary, the balance between scary pictures of reality, which reveal important social issues, and, on the other hand, the consumer will not be intimidated, and to force him to reflect and draw attention to important social issue.
During our work we were often faced with the frankly poor examples of advertising that used elements of violence and brutal power. Sufficient number of examples of such advertising gives us grounds to consider the use of violence and brutality as a way of influence on consumers. The presence of these components in the new media suggests that the dominance sense of power in all its forms, is a priority in the media and, at the same time, the most secret desire of every person.
In fact, the violence - is the lack of power (psychological), and the true strength of a man - is the ability to manage their emotions, desires, behaviors. According to H. Kaftanjiev "According neofraude schools appeal to authority – is a center call, it is even more powerful then sex appeal. Some neo-Freudians interpret libido not as satisfying sexual needs, but as the need for power" [Kaftanjiev 2008: 143]. Worth noting: the combination of these two factors leads to the fact that every previous generation will be the next more indifferent and aggressive. As we know, effective way to influence the younger generation in the XX century was and is an advertisement, it dictated the actual value of each new generation, and formed their worldview.
So, we concluded that the scenes of violence in advertising are mainly used in two cases:
1) in the public sphere, which is against domestic violence, violence against women, the children, the trafficking of prisoners (to make emphasis on the ill-treatment of vulnerable persons / sections of the population);
2) in commercial advertising that uses violence as a provocation or as a way of life (in order to emphasize the power and authority of the one who shows aggression, that is, the idea of the future consumer brand).
The creative component of the advertisement - a search that causes resentment that is "painful" to watch or what anyone secretly dreams. Violence awakens the dark side of human, the basic instincts that are deeply hidden from society and from himself. Is such advertising so necessary in modern society – it's a rhetorical question. To draw an analogy, with the advent of public pornography sites in Puritan USA reduced by 80% in the number of crimes of sexual violence [Kovrizhenko 2004: 208]. But on the other hand, the more person gets, the more he wants something new, and this type of searching may lead to undesirable (immoral) experiments. This is what may happens in modern advertising. Over time, feeling dull, and the man wants new and stronger emotions. As a result, it can lead to the fact that we will raise a generation for whom aggression and perversion become a norm.
The society in which we all live in today, has different names in different research areas. From the point of ecology and sociology – it's a "consumer society", in terms of culture - we are in the "post-modern situation". Both terms cover different aspects of human existence today.
The aim of the consumer society is the commission of an infinite number of purchases and receive pleasure from the fact of acquiring things; postmodern culture speaks about permissiveness, abuse frames, mixing styles. The link between the two concepts can be ads because using permissiveness, it makes "consumers consume" as much as possible, without restrictions and make them enjoy their goods.
Today, there is enough research concerning the psychology of advertising, branding, leading social marketing campaigns, product promotion and other areas. But when we are confronted with images that can not be classified as an ordinary advertising, they awaken in us with a new strong emotions: laughter, joy, excitement, hatred, lust, desire, and fear. In this case, we think that it raises an important issues regarding the emotional state of customer at the time of viewing aggressive advertising. We are planning to search this questions in our further studies, because we believe that the presence of shock elements in advertising impact on and change human's behavior. Advertising is not just a way of selling goods, it is also a way of creating a new reality with new heroes and new life priorities.
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