facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki

DMSO AND IZATIZON CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT IMMUNITY

Автор Доклада: 
Zimina O., Vorobiova I., Voloshchuk T., Zaika L., Alkhimova O.
Награда: 
DMSO AND IZATIZON CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT IMMUNITY

DMSO AND IZATIZON CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT IMMUNITY

Olga Zimina, PhD student
Iryna Vorobiova senior engineer
Tamara Voloshchuk, PhD
Leonid Zaika, PhD
Olena Alkhimova, PhD
Institute of Molecular Biology & Genetics NAS of Ukraine


Plants are constantly exposed to numerous influences of various plant pathogens. To counter the actions of the agents, plants must rapidly identify the presence of the pathogen and trigger an immune response. A number of signaling hormones reprogram the activity of transcriptional regulators and specific sets of genes. Using izatizon and DMSO may help plants to expand their program of immune response in a timely manner, accurately and effectively. It is assumed that izatizon acts nonspecifically, raising the common resistance of plant cells.
Keywords: DMSO, izatizon, signaling hormones, plant immunity, Secale cereale, Arabidopsis thaliana.

The wide use of izatizon and concomitant solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in practical medicine outlined the pharmacological profile of these compounds [1]. Antimicrobial and antiviral effects of izatizon in experiments on animals and insects [2] prompted us to study possible mechanisms of its interaction in plants. Plant cells maintain complex gene transcription programmes to regulate their development, communication, and response to the environment. Any pathogen encounter leads to dramatic reprogramming of plant hormone system to defense responses instead of normal cellular functions.
Two model plants, rye (Secale cereale) and Arabidopsis thaliana were used to study how two substances affect plant growth, regeneration capacity and resistance to infection when cultured in vitro. Here we consider the first steps before initiating the in vitro culture. Seeds of rye accession ‘Drevlianske’ were used to examine how to operate various concentrations of DMSO and izatizon and what doses of the substances are physiologic for plant growth and development. Results presented in Figure 1 showed that expose of rye seeds to izatizon and DMSO inhibits the germination process and slows the growth of shoots during the first 10 days with high doses of drugs, but increases the level of synchronization of their growth. Action of izatizon was stronger than DMSO. Lack of seed contamination was observed during almost three weeks after treatment, while no significant effect was seen in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in anaphases as compared with the control (Fig. 2).
Rye is one of the most recalcitrant species in tissue culture [3]. The experimental design allowed the development of genotype-specific tissue culture protocols, maximizing the plant regeneration response from rye tissue culture. Precocious germination of explants, callus induction and callus maintenance (formation of embryo and dedifferentiated callus) as well as regeneration response (percentage of regenerating callus and number of regenerated plants per callus) were significantly influenced by genotype, cytokinin and auxin sources and their respective concentrations and interactions. Genotypes differed in the callus response to media sterilization procedure (DMSO and izatizon complementation) and illumination. These culture protocols will enable the development of efficient genetic transformation protocols for rye.
Our results suggest also that the combination of DMSO and izatizon as pretreatments for Agrobacterium improved the transformation efficiency in rye and arabidopsis. As poor regeneration from transformed cells ultimately limits the production of transgenic plants, the drugs may help the post-infection survival of competent cells in tissues, thereby increasing the number of transformed cells surviving to form calli and shoots. The combination of izatizon and ascorbic acid in culture medium may also minimize cell death caused by the hypersensitive response of the cells due to Agrobacterium infection [4].
Plants are continuously exposed to numerous attacks by different plant pathogens. To counteract the actions of invading pathogens, plants must rapidly recognize the presence of these pathogens and initiate an immune response that is timely, accurate, and effective [5]. The authors argue that activation of immunity is accomplished by the action of a multitude of transcriptional regulators that reprogram the transcriptome to favor defense responses over routine cellular requirements [5]. Pieterse et al. showed that the activity of these transcriptional regulators is orchestrated by a blend of signaling hormones of which salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene are particularly important [6]. These signaling hormones regulate specific and overlapping sets of genes that are induced and/or repressed by the action of transcriptional regulators [5].
Remarkable change in the content and the ratio of hormones, cytokinin and auxin, were observed during the formation of embryoids in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecotypes Columbia (Col №1093, NASC) of A. thaliana was used. Seeds were treated by DMSO and izatizon and germinated at 24°C under continuous light. Regenerated plants were obtained from root explants and shoot-apical-tip explants of seedlings. Cultured material was fixed on callus and embryo formation stages (Fig. 3). Plant hormones play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development. A complex interplay of auxins, cytokinins and gibberellic acid determine whether outgrowth will occur from a given leaf axillary bud, the phenomenon of apical dominance [4]. Since cytokinins promote outgrowth from axillary buds, roots of plants infected grew more slowly, suggestive of a decrease in auxin signaling, given that auxin inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds and promotes growth of lateral roots [4]. In our experiments initiation of somatic embryogenesis accompanied by alteration in cytokinin/auxin profile and was promoted by izatizon action. It is assumed that izatizon acts nonspecifically, raising the common resistance of plant cells.

References:

1. Potopalsky A.I., Lozuk L.V., Mirolubova A.N., Bessarabov B.F. Antiviral, antitumor and antileukaemik drug izatizon. - K., Naukova dumka, 1991.- 191 p.
2. Lozuk L.V., Potopalsky A.I., Lozuk R.M. Medical therapy and prophylaxis of viral diseases – L’viv, Norma - 2003. – 208 p.
3. Popelka J.C., Altpeter F. Interactions between genotypes and culture media components for improved in vitro response of rye. Transgenic Res. 2003. P. 587-96.
4. Eaton C.J., Cox M.P., Scott B. What triggers grass endophytes to switch from mutualism to pathogenism? Plant Science. 2011. 180: 190-195.
5. Pieterse C.M.J., Leon-Reyes A., Van der Ent S., Van Wees S.C.M. Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity. Nat.Chem.Biol. 2009. 5: 308-316.
6. Moore J.W., Loake G.J., Spoel S.H. Transcription dynamics in plant immunity. Plant Cell. 2011. 23: 2809-2820. 

9
Your rating: None Average: 9 (3 votes)

Автори вивчають цікаву та

Автори вивчають цікаву та актуальну проблему. Бажаємо успіхів у подальших дослідженнях.

Работа выполнена на уровне

Работа выполнена на уровне мировых стандартов. Авторы иллюстрируют изменения в сложном процессе иммунного ответа растений на воздействие патогенных микроорганизмов с помощью препаратов, что очень важно в современных условиях неблагополучной экологии, не только для растений, но для животных и человека.
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.