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CREATION OF DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC GEOINFORMATION SYSTEM FOR GEOGRAPHIC EXPERTISE IN AZERBAIJAN
Samadli Chinara Ahad, student
Baku State University
Geographic expertise means geographic analysis within place and time of available natural events to be occurred in the intended region while carrying out any new project regarding economic activity of people. The scope, intensity, type, population rate and amount of damage of natural disasters occurred in nature have to be determined in the project to settle the development and regional management of any economy. Therefore, the geographic expertise opinion has to be obtained from specialists before implementation of projects in all industrial spheres. The specialists having geographic knowledge may express their opinion on the issues that they have seen studying mentioned when answering questions a number of questions such as location of economic fields, their development and other ones and define optimal solution ways of the problem.
Geographic expertise analyses how and what purposes the area is used and may come a purposely conclusion. The following two negative cases may occur if a geographer’s opinion is not obtained: 1) Intended project may profit to the economy but the development of the economy in the area may much more damage the nature and people than the profit. For example, top quality product is achieved in agriculture by drawing irrigation channels from old times up today in Kur-Araz lowland, Azerbaijan. But the level of underground waters approaches to the surface as economy existed without observing irrigation standards during long years and salinization of soil occurred because the available evaporation was high. Now it is impossible to develop any agricultural area in the salted areas of the region and modern technology is unable to bring the nature to its former state.
2) Sometimes possibility of natural disasters, i.e. severe change of natural processes within place and time are not taken into account in projects. To take into account mentioned changes there is need to complex mathematical calculations of both historical information and regularly observed information. We may cite the building of bridges on mountain rivers in dangerous slopes and building roads and village houses around river beds as an example. All mentioned must be realized taking into account the long-year change of the nature. Villages settled near river bed were inflicted a lot damage as the result of flood of Kur river. Such damages occur when mountain rivers flood. But it is possible to prevent the flow of main part of water to the course of river building concrete channels directing the out direction of the surface waters in the areas when mountain ri
vers flood and all necessary facilities may be created to flow them to the safe places. For example, the excess waters were directed to the former course of Araz river in 2010 in order to prevent further floods in Kur river and consequently it damaged the economy a lot. A lot of damage was inflicted to the social life of people and state economic fields of 18 administrative regions and more than 180 villages located within their territories as the result of floods in May and June months of 2010 year. Damage to the amount of 3941500 manats was inflicted to Sabirabad region, 560000 manats to Kurdamir region, 266900 manats to Salyan, 65400 manats to Neftchala according to the calculations. 300 million manats were allocated from state budget from injured people according to the state authorities. This amount is little. The real amount of the damage was USD 1 – 1.5 billion according to the calculations.
Regions around Kur river always faced such events. The level of underground waters heightened in Kur-Araz lowland, 1.3 million hectare salted soils emerged and as the result salinization process accelerated after use of Mingachevir storage facility. Collected waters could not fall to the sea and flood as there was not control over deposition in the course of the river near Caspian Sea.
Assignment of geographic expertise in Azerbaijan may play an important role for shores of the sea. As we know the level of Caspian sea heightened as it was in former times and a lot of damage emerged related the flood in shore areas in Azerbaijan. For example, 50 settlements, 250 enterprises, 60 km motor way, 10 km railway, 40 thousand ha winter pasture, in general, 131 thousand ha area near the shore in Azerbaijan remained under the water and bulrush overgrown and these areas became unfit for use. Flood of villages, settlements and different governmental and non-governmental economic areas near shore result as the lack of geographic expertise opinion.
The construction of residential houses, road building on the shore requested by the government legally is intended to be in a proper distant from the sea for establishment of different economies. But people and economy damaged a lot as self-management authorities did not take into account these factors.
We may show the areas which require geographic expertise are the areas where mud volcano situates. Mud volcano in Azerbaijan is generally extinct but their activation may take place any time. Therefore, establishment of different economies, building of roads in these areas must base on the opinion of geologist and geographic experts.
The flame which height was 60 m took fire as the result of eruption of mud volcano in Sangi-Mughan island of Caspian sea in April 11, 1932 inflicted a lot damage to constructions, installations, residential houses in the island and people living here could not survive and all of them died.
The opinion of geographic expertise is very important in projecting, building and exploitation of motor ways in Azerbaijan. Geographic expertise of displacement defines where roads and other economic buildings pass from in the region, i.e. it requires not to construct buildings in the areas where displacement may happen. Otherwise, we may confront economic damage and destruction. We may show the Mughanli-Ismayiili, Guba-Khinalig, Maraza-Shamakhi-Aghsu and other roads. Mughanli-Ismayilli road was built in the area where the displacement was very active 1980s. This road subjected to destruction for 20-30 times from its exploitation till today and stopped its activity for long or short periods. Geographic expertise is required while intensive and irrational use of natural resources. For example, the lowering of the level of underground waters as the result of cutting trees, drying of wells regarding to it, non-restoration of some types of trees cut is not taken into account. Therefore, there is great need to geographic expertise and opinions from the standpoint of efficient use of natural resources in modern economy. Because, it is not provided in documents, constitution and codes that in which borders, where and in what composition trees spread and it is known whether they may be restored and therefore, geographers, geologists, geobotanists, hydro-geologists must be addressed to get opinion. As lack of geographic expertise in old times people were obliged to move other places after the geographic state became worse, and exhaust of natural resources. Such cases also exist today but people now move to other countries apart from old times. While migration their state rights do not preserve its validity and as the result they have difficulties for a long time.
We may cite destruction of the roofs of the houses etc. as an example to the damages the hails caused in Azerbaijan. The cause of these damages is not taking into account the possibility of hails, its frequency correctly. The roofs of the houses where the diameter of hail are big must be built of solid building materials, such as iron. But unfortunately, the roofs of the houses are covered with slates in these areas. Hails are often happens in Tovuz-Gazakh region and most of the houses’ roofs are built of slates.
Geographic expertise must be made in mountainous areas where strong snow-slips take place. Damages are emerged as snow-slip is not taken into account when building tourism and short term relax hotels (to develop mountain tourism). Snow slip in the Autonomous Republic of North Ossetia, Russia in September 2002 caused a tragedy and several small villages and artisans who were shooting a movie remained under snow and nearly 15 persons died or lost.
We prepared the base of electron cartographic geoinformation model (database model) for all components of the nature such as soil, flora, geology, climate, hydro-geology and all anthropogenesis objects in order to settle these issues operatively and to carry out geographic expertise by electron methods. We used 1: 100000 and 1:200000 topographic maps and 1:500000 general geographic maps. The base model allows us to define the expertise of general indexes in first step for implementation of any project in any place of Azerbaijan. It is not difficult to collect information on disasters of little scope than global one. Therefore, such information may be obtained from digital maps created in computer to use the data covering all territory of Azerbaijan. These maps may be used to prevent damages in current economic fields. Geoinformation model aimed geographic expertise has been made in geoinformatics and computer geography centere in the BSU and the main content of it has been checked up by A.A. Nabiyev, the head of the center(www.ali-nabiyev.narod.ru).
1.Babakhanov N.A., Is it possible to curb natural disasters? Baku, 2006, page 215
2.Babakhanov N.A., Gurbanzada A.A. It is important to take into account the geographic expertise in Azerbaijan. “Republic” newspaper, August 20, 2010
3.Samadli Ch. A. Mud volcano and their usage opportunities. Baku, 2011 // the Materials of Scientific Conference XIV of postgraduate and undergraduates dedicated to 88th anniversary of national leader of Heydar Aliyev, Department of Geography, Baku State University, page 254-256
4.Sh. Y. Goychayli, A.A. Nabiyev – the Importance issues on creation of information system aimed ecological expertise of Azerbaijan, Baku 2002 // materials of scientific and methodological conference dedicated to the 95th anniversary academician Hasan Aliyev named Problems of Applied Ecology, page 69-71