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TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CIRCUS ANIMALS

Автор Доклада: 
Sivkova T. N., Neprimerova T. A.

УДК 619:616.99

TOXOPLASMOSIS IN CIRCUS ANIMALS

Sivkova Tatyana Nikolaevna, doctor of biology
Perm State Agricultural Academy
Neprimerova Tatyana Anatolievna
Perm State Circus


By immunoassay it is established that 17,20% of circus animals have an antibodies against T.gondii antigenes. Tigers and lions most often happen are infected by toxoplasmosis. The infected meat and oocysts play a dominant role in infection of animals. Application of effective preparations for processing of circus objects is necessary.
Keywords: circus, animals, toxoplasmosis, immunoassay, antibodies.

Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease of the humans and the animals, caused by the parasitic protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii). This disease proceeds more often in the subclinical form. As definitive hosts is representative of family Felidae act. Toxoplasmosis is revealed at the wild cats, lions, Pallas’cats, a red lynx and the cheetahs in zoos and nature [2; 8; 9]. Examination of antibodies to T. gondii is found out in jaguars, ocelots, and also a red and Canadian lynx in wild population. In the Far East of Russian Federation the Amur tigers have T. gondii antibodies on 63% [2], thus a caption was high. In the Timisoara zoo by the immunoassay a 100 %-s' contamination of toxoplasmosis house cats, lions and wild cats is established [10]. At adults cat's toxoplasmosis passes without symptoms while at young and immunodeficitan animals the lethal outcome is possible [9]. Hard toxoplasmosis proceeds at young growth Pallas’cats in the zoos [3; 12].
As intermediate hosts of T. gondii researchers registered an antelope, the grizzly, the American black bear, pigs, the American elk, a red fox, raccoons, a mink and primacies of a New World [7; 8], polecats [2]. In a ring-tailed lemur presented to the Auburn University Small Animal Clinic with signs of dyspnea, lethargy, and anorexia. The animal died before she could be examined, and a full necropsy was immediately performed. Provisional necropsy findings included moderate pneumonia and hepatopathy. Acute interstitial pneumonia and focal hepatocellular necrosis were confirmed histologically. Lung impression smears, histopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and tissue culture isolation resulted in a diagnosis of acute disseminated T. gondii infection, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [13]. T. gondii have been found out in many kinds of sea mammals. Getting to a nervous, they can cause heavy encephalitis [4; 5; 6; 11]. Distribution of toxoplasmosis at circus animals isn't studied.
Materials and methods. The study was carried out between 2010 and 2011 on 88 blood samples collected from circus animals in the Perm State Circus. The blood samples were collected from animals of various ages, while the animals were occasional treatments. The samples were examined in the Parasitic Diseases Laboratory from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in the Perm State Agricultural Academy.
The serum samples were examined through ELISA, using the Vekto-Toxo-antibodies kits (Vektor-Best, Russian Federation) to determine the presence of Toxoplasma-specific antibodies, resulting from infection with T. gondii. For performing ELISA method we used the manufacturer instructions.
Results. The Russian state circus has a considerable quantity of the animals in numbers of various genres. Besides, animals contain in mobile zoocircuses (menageries) and nursery, in numbers of collectives «Circus on a scene».
In our researches the analysis of sera samples from 34 individuals of representatives of families Canidae and Felidae has been carried out. Including from house cats (Felis catis) – 16, from tigers (Panthera tigris) – 4, from lions (Panthera leo) - 4, from house dogs (Canis familiaris) – 10. Also we test of blood from 10 brown (Ursus arctos) bears, 4 macaque (Macaca), 6 sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), 4 raccoons (Nasua nasua), 1 rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 28 pigeons (Columba livia) and 1 cock (Gallus gallus) have been surveyed.
House cats have individual portable cages; daily have possibility to be in one big group open-air cage. Tigers, lions and leopards live in individual cages. House dogs are placed in small cages or rooms by small groups. Premises for animals and open-air cages carefully wash cages and process a preparation of "Virkon". Feeding of predatory animals is carried out according to the instruction on feeding of circus animals. Cats and dogs eat «Royal Canin» and «Hill’s». Sea animals contain in an open-air cage with two pools filled with sea water. As forage they receive frozen sea fish.
Circus animals had T. gondii antibodies in 7,20% cases.
All surveyed tigers and lions had antibodies to T. gondii, but bears, raccoons, sea animals and pigeons had antibodies only in 20-50%. Circus dogs and rabbit had no T. gondii antibodies in blood.

Seroprevalence to toxoplasmosis in circus animals

Seroprevalence to toxoplasmosis in circus animals.

It is known that toxoplasmosis infection probably various ways: by oocysts, by tissue cysts and by transplacental transmission. The transplacental transmission is not possible in circus animals. Infected tigers and lions, most likely, have occurred through meat which contains tissue cysts of T. gondii in 25-50%. Cats and dogs in the circus have no possibility to hunt on rodents and receive ready industrial forages in this connection; infection possibility toxoplasmosis at them is reduced to a minimum. Nevertheless, representatives of family Felidae can be in certain cases infected by an intestinal stage of toxoplasmosis and allocate oocystes in feces.
Pigeons, hens and rabbits are capable to catch only as a result of hit in a digestive path T. gondii oocysts. Our researches have shown that third of surveyed by immunoassay circus pigeons have antibodies T. gondii. The unique surveyed cock, also has antibodies T. gondii. This fact can testify about insufficiently careful of decontamination of premises and territories in circus in this connection.
At clinical inspection at some of seropositive animals such changes, as displays of aggression have revealed, a tremor of back and forward extremities, selectivity in meal, infringement of seasonal prevalence of a moult.
Conclusions. By immunoassay it is established that 17,20% of circus animals have an antibodies against T.gondii. Tigers and lions most often happen are infected by toxoplasmosis. The infected meat and oocysts play a dominant role in infection of animals. Application of effective preparations for processing of circus objects is necessary.

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13. Spencer J. A., Joiner K. S., Hilton C. D., Dubey J. P., Toivio-Kinnucan M., Minc J. K., Blagburn B. L.. Disseminated Toxoplasmosis in a Captive Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta). Journal of Parasitology: August 2004, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 904-906. 

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