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AWARENESS AND LEGAL CULTURE OF CADETS-RESCUERS
Mykhaylo Kozyar, doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, rector
Lvov State University of personal and social safety of the Ministry of Emergency Measures of Ukraine
Оleg Zarichanskyj, candidate of pedagogical sciences, senior lecturer
State University Trans-Carpathian
The article deals with awareness and legal culture of cadets-rescuers in a modern building of the Ukrainian state. Confirmed that the level of professional awareness proportion of those working in the field of life safety, still does not meet modern requirements. Proved that the legal consciousness of the future expert depends on the legal culture of society.
Keywords: professional awareness, legal culture, state governed, life safety specialist, cadets-rescuer.
В статье рассматривается правосознание и правовая культура курсантов-спасателей в условиях современного строительства украинского государства. Подтверждено, что уровень профессионального правосознания значительной части лиц, действующих в сфере безопасности жизнедеятельности, еще не отвечает современным требованиям. Доказано, что правосознание будущего специалиста зависит от правовой культуры общества.
Ключевые слова: профессиональное правосознание, правовая культура, правовое государство, специалист безопасности жизнедеятельности, курсант-спасатель.
Problem: Today Ukraine’s chosen the wocy of progressive development of the society, in all spheres of its functioning, including the legal one.
The fullfilment of the society democratic processes, effective realization of constitutional aims of Ukraine’s development, information of the new legal political system, of civil society and the state of law, means a significant work at improvement of professional awareness and legal culture of the people of Ukraine.
In the development and functioning of life-safety system of any country the training of professional life-savers as well as abilities and state of their professional awareness plays a very important role.
In science and science-popular literature the problems of the development of the Ukrainian state at the moment is being very actively discussed, as well as its legal system, defects and contradictions. The solution of these problems is seen in improvement of legislation currently in force, if executive branches, that function the field life-safety. Jet, many researchers ignore the personality factor and forget that the efficiency of functioning of any sphere of public life directly depends on definite people, that professional do it. Concerning the life-safety sphere this means: the system of life-safety is so professional as the life-savers are. If, in general, these are the people with a low level of legal culture, neither better legislation nor anything borrowed from high-developed states will help.
So, as may be understood, the professional training for the work in the specific sphere of life-safety of public life has the principal significance and importance for all the systems of Ministry of emergency situations of Ukraine.
Substantiating the urgency of the research done, we also mark off the necessity of the further working-out of the legal culture system formation of the future life-safety specialists.
The analyses of the existing researches and unsolved as problem aspects. Today, Ukrainian and foreign scientists reached significant results in research of a wide problem range in the field of professional training of life-safety, life-rescue and life-guard specialists and their legal culture. Among them are: the methodology of cadets’adaptation to the learning and bringing up process. (G. Vasil’ev, A. Galimov, V. Raiko, M. Kozjar, V. Konopljov, O. Nazarov, G. Javorska, V. Jaguypov, etc.); the peculiarities of cadets’personality will-emotional development (M. Anufriev, I. Grjaznov, V. Djachenko, M. Smetanskyj, M. Kozjar, V. Plisko, A. Javorskyj, etc.); conseptions of professional training of the future (V. Androsjuk, O. Bandurko, C. Zaporozhzev, V. Djachenko, J. Kondratiev, A. Ligotskyj, A. Morozov, O. Negodchenko, S. Slyvka, V. Sinjov, O. Stoljarenko, O. Kosarevska, etc.)
Therefore, the analyses of the modern theory and practice of cadets life-savers training ohowed that the problem of the formation of the legal culture of the future life-safety specialists hasn’t been the object of a complex psychological-pedagogical research.
The aim of the article is the analyses of professional awareness as the element of the cadets-life-savers’ legal culture.
Summary of the basic material of the research. The aim of the qualified training of the MES staff of Ukraine defines the necessity of psychological-pedagogical accomplishment of the teaching and bringing-up process aiming at the usage of the effective ways of forming the awareness and legal culture of the future specialist’s personality. Read Meeting and fulfilling these requirements includes learning the necessary professional knowledge, possessing skills and training, working out the want, motives, interests, value orientations of the future life-safety specialists.
The results of theoretical research show, that the profession of life-safety specialists requires a thorough and different training, and one of the main skills of this training is the forming of ability to analytically evaluate the situations. This evaluation must be done with the constant development of the critical and objective thinking, that by training of the future life-safety specialists is closely connected with the forming of moral judgements, and with the images about the subjects of their professional activity.
In the many specialists’ opinion, professional awareness is the system of images and ideas, feelings and emotions that express the person’s attitude or
- society’s attitude in general to legislation currently in fosse, to law, and also to the personality activity
- connected with law. Awareness must also be a trait, possessed by those, who work in the law-inforcing branch as well as by every citizen of the country.
The bearers of the awareness can be different subjects of law: a personality, public unions, political parties, state branches and their executives, law-scientists, practicing lawyers and the society in general.
Juridical awareness stands out as a normative awareness exclusively of law-inforcement officers, that is, of the specialists having a secondary special education and higher juridical education and who possess professional juridical knowledge on the practical, theoretical-practical or scientific-practical level; legal convictions, ideals and images of the desirable law; evaluative, normative, positively steady attitude to the law currently in force and legal order, viewed through the prism of subjective rights and responsibilities; legal purposes [4; 5].
Professional awareness of the future life-safety specialists ? is a scientifically grounded straight system of legal (juridical) knowledge, convictions and feelings that specialists use in their work. Professional awareness ? is the image about law, that is formed in professional lawyers, law specialists on the basis of world outlooking legal ideology and specific legal knowledge. The initial source of forming of professional awareness is the special education, in the process of which, the person receives systematical knowledge about legal reality in total as well as skills for practical tasks accomplishment in the sphere of relationships. Later on, received knowledge are developed and become more profound as the result of work experience.
The forming of the high-level professional awareness of the future life-safety specialists must become the central idea of the whole special education, because the professional level of life-saver graduate directly depends on the qualitative accomplishment of this task: as well as his competence, practical preparedness for future profession, deformation steadiness, etc.
A modern legal culture is a legal culture of the developed and effectively functioning civil society and legal state. By means of its essence and the core idea it is a culture of confession, defence and realization of rights and freedoms of a person and a citizen as higher values [3, p. 274]. A legal culture depends on legal education. In opinion of G. Yavorskaya, "legal education is a structural component of education in Ukraine, process of accession of legal knowledge, skills and abilities, forming of respect to the right, law, to the rights and freedoms of a person, proper legal orientations and estimations, legal behavioral options and reasons of good behaviour etc" .
The images about legal principles of public relationships regulation in a definite social system are formed and stored in legal awareness of the future life-safety specialists.
Unfortunately, as practice and research results show, the functioning of this system, the level of professional awareness of the significant proportion of those, who work in the sphere of legal relationships does not meet the requirements of nowadays. Amidst the life-safety specialists we see legal nihilism, subjective decision-making in court cases not on the basis of law, but on the executives attitude widely spread. As sociological researches, held in Russia, show that the
1-st place among the motives that most of the force offices performers follow in their official work fall in the category like “Operative circumstances demand” (35,6 % of the interviewed), “The direction ordered” (30,4 %) and only after that? the motive “that’s the rule of law” (20,7 %) and “the fear of the responsibility to break the law” (13,3 %) [1, p. 20]. The same can be observed in Ukraine.
For the future law-inforcement officers, the attitude to criminality and the means to fight it are of a great importance. Concerning this, let’s consider the formation peculiarities of the professional awareness following the definite rules: to have a firm attitude towards the criminal behaviour and censure encroachment on the values, being guarded by law; inadmissibility of social principals violation and breaking of legal norms; strict and rigorous knowledge of legacy and following the rules; high level of law and order evaluation; negative reaction to criminality, unacceptance of it, conviction in the necessity to root it out; higher level of requirements to sanctions usage for lawbreaking comparing to the rest of law-abiding citizens: orientation to the strict punishment and higher evaluation of personal performance and the department performance comparing to the others .
S. Slyvka points out also the proper requirements, that must be met by the future specialist serving in the internal affairs departments; these requirements supplement his legal culture and create his professional behaviour code, based on the internal order of his official duties: psychological requirements ? knowledge of psychology, of personality’s mental processes, the ability to use psychodiagnostics and psychocorrection in his daily work; moral and ethical requirements? define mastering of humanistic moral principles and the ability to follow them in practice; aesthetic requirements? are manifested in the means of communication, overall appearance of the lawyer, knowledge of the official etiquette, etc.); political requirements? are, in the first place, the knowledge of the political strategy, state tactics and political parties and movements; the specialist must be politically educated and politically active .
Modern legal culture? is the legal culture of the development and effectively functioning civil society and juridical state. In its essence and main idea it is a culture of acknowledgment, defence and accomplishment of people’s rights and freedoms as the highest values [3, p. 274]. Modern legal culture is characterized by the following qualitative features as: crucial significance of people’s rights and freedoms and citizens in juridical arrangement of public and state life; consolidation of the feeling of respect towards the law and order, ideas and values of law planning in mass consciousness; practical realization of constitutional principles and legal law leadership; coordinated and effective functioning of all sourees of positive law and all branches of state power legal activity of the people and their public unions in the fulfillment of their rights and proper accomplishment of their juridical duties; active legislative, defensive, law-inforsing activity of all branches of the state machinery; ramified system of legalized forms, remedies and procedures of civil state’s influence on the state and its activity control [3, p. 275]. When we speak about the legal culture we may assume that a person who is not a professional lawyer has got sufficient knowledge of legislative acts, understands basic principals and tasks of law, knows his basic rights, freedoms and duties. Peculiar claims are laid to those, whose profession is the activity in the sphere of law. A lot of things concerning the fulfillment of legal additions depend on how deep and correct these personalities mastered legal norms and additions. When we speak about legal culture, we mean not only the process of laws-making and normative legal acts editing, but also the realization of this acts in life. We also consider the level of the legal awareness hence which values are predominant in the state and society, which traditions are formed, real position of the person in the society and his relationship with the state.
In this way, legal culture is revealed not only in written laws, that is, in specific texts, but also in practice of their fulfillment and realization. The more precise the practice in the sphere of legal relationships meets the content of norms and principles of law the higher is the legal culture. Legal culture depends on the legal awareness. World experience shows, that legal culture is higher in states, where a person and a state act as equal in rights partners, where they are responsible to each other [2, p. 246].
Agreeing with this opinion in general, we consider it necessary to say that all above mentioned functions to some extent are connected with the function of rights defence guarantee as well as freedoms of the citizens. This very function of legal culture of life-safety specialists makes the basis of their professional activity.
To solve the problem of the quality improvement of professional training of the life-safety specialists in their official performance it is necessary to considerably liven pedagogical researches of the forming process of legal culture of the MES personnel of Ukraine on the ground of the modern pedagogical technologies.
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