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Kozhevnikova Tatiana Mikhailivna, candidate of economics, doctoral candidate
Belchenko Olga Aleksandrovna, candidate of economics, doctoral candidate
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Russia";
In the present article results of the retrospective analysis of economy of the Tambov region which opens historical preconditions of a current state of regional economy are stated. It reveals main competitive advantages and threats of the present stage of the economic development of the region, and also the main processes which activation is a necessary condition of increase of the efficiency of a regional economic complex.
Keywords: regional economy, agriculture, agrarian and industrial complex, clusters, integration.
The existing structure of the industry and its specialization allowsto characterize the Tambov region as the region of the diversified industry which efficiency, as a whole, is insufficiently high. A share of the area in the volume of shipped production of the industry in the Russian Federation is four times less than a similar share in population. On the contrary, agriculture of the Tambov region is almost 2 times more effective, than on the average in the country. Therefore the Tambov region should be considered to beone of the transit agrarian and industrial regions.
The agriculture possesses a leading place in the formation of a gross regional product. Every fourth ruble is created by the branches of agrarian sector of the economy of the area. The first place belongs to its branches and the number of workers, - 24-25 %
Nearly 11 % of sugar production belongs to the Tambov region (the 4th place in the Russian Federation), 2,2 % of vegetable oil (the 9th place in the Russian Federation), 2 % of collecting grain (the 16th place in the Russian Federation, the 4th place in the Central federal district).
Modern specifics of social and economic space of the Tambov region are defined by a set of factors among which are the climatic factors connected with the natural basis of the territorial complex of the region.
First of all the structure of economic activity since the moment of origin of the Tambov region and till the end of the XIX century has been defined by its geographical position, environment and resources of the territory.
First, the flat surface, moderate and continental climate with a long warm period, chernozem soils, ground structure (a forest-steppe natural zone) caused agricultural specialization of the region (i.e. plant growing and cattle breeding development, and also small enterprises processing agricultural production).
Secondly, the favorable economical geographical position (especially after increase in the southern territories of Russia), defined trade development, origin of transport arteries and corresponding "infrastructure".
Thirdly, lack of minerals, was initially a primary factor constraining the origin of enterprises of extracting and processing industry.
As a result the commodity turnover structure with the neighboring territories also had its peculiarity. The Tambov region as an agrarian area delivered agricultural products for the market of Russia, and brought industrial goods .
With the formation of the industrial environment of regional economy during the Soviet period of history the characteristics of structural ties of social and economic space ceased to be determined by mainly climatic factors which faded into the background, acting as necessary preconditions of the development of the regional complex. Directly elements of social and economic space of regional complexes form socio-economic factors – productive forces, forms of the organization of production and assignment – which are actively formed by specific methods of social and economic policy of the Soviet state.
The policy of industrialization of the Tambov region led to essential shifts in branch structure of economy of the region. Still the main part belonged to the food and light industry the share of which is more than 68,5 % of cumulative input. But the share of power industry, the chemical and petrochemical industry, mechanical engineering and metal working, as a whole, according to the results of pre-war five-years periods exceeded 21,5 % whereas in 1928 it made less than 3 % . The economic complex of the Tambov region slowly, but steadily passed from the agrarian to the agrarian-industrial type.
Nevertheless, the main sphere of economy of the region was still agriculture in which there had been important quality changes concerning first of all a leading branch – plant growing. In comparison with 1913 the agricultural area gains characteristics of industrial economy. The share of grain crops in the total cultivated areas is reduced from 89,8 % in 1913, to 78,1 % in 1940. During post-war time this tendency proceeds (64,1 % in 1956). Rye had remained the main grain culture, but its crops were reduced not only partly, but also totally (from 732,5 thousand hectares in 1913 to 522,3 thousand hectares in 1956), no less than oats and millet crops.
In the 80th the area entered a position of the industrial and agrarian region. Created in the period of industrialization almost from the scratch mechanical engineering and the chemical industry in the mid-80th began to define industrial type of the region. Their share was more than 47,5 % of industrial production of the area. For comparison: in 1928 specific weight of the chemical industry and mechanical engineering made 2,6 %. The share of traditional branches – the light and food industry – was on the contrary reduced in 1,75 times and made in 1985 46,5 % from total amount of production of the industrial output.
However behind ostentatious figures of quantitative growth of the economy of the region during the Soviet period were hidden the accruing negative tendencies connected with the problems of extensive development and centralized management. The most common exertion of the crisis had been the decrease in mid-annual rates of the gain of the industrial output and delay of growth rates of labor productivity.
During this period in the world economy under the influence of NTP there has been a tendency of reduction of the service life of machines and equipment that reflected a growing productivity and a fast obsolescence of fixed assets. Ignoring of regularities of innovative development promoted, first, to replication of out-of-date technologies, and, secondly, aging of OPF which was fully shown during the crisis of the 90th.
The destruction of the material and technical base - it is a problem of agriculture in the region. In the Tambov region, due to both objective and subjective reasons, took place. The region is one among those, which have the highest proportion of unprofitable agricultural enterprises and organizations - more than 52.8% (Russian Federation - 42.3%, the Central Federation Region -47.8% ) [3, p. 914].
In recent years Production of all types of technology exceed in several times its production. The number of farm machinery and equipment throughout 1990-2004 decreased by 2.7 times, and for some kinds of equipment (potato harvester combines, irrigation systems and facilities, milking machines, machines for fertilizing the soil) by 5.5 or more. As a result, the load on the vehicles has increased by 1.5-2 times. Nowadays there is a high level of depreciation of the major manufacturing funds ( MF). In 2005 it amounted to 48.4% against 42.9% in average throughout the country, including fully depreciated stocks - 14.8% versus 14.1%.
By the end of 2009, the degree of depreciation of MF in agriculture of Tambov region was reduced to 35.5%, but still remained higher than in the Central Federal Region and in the Russian Federation as a whole [3, p. 395].
Summarizing the results of a retrospective analysis of the region's economy in the transitional period, it can be said that the nature of the socio-economic transformation of the region in the 90th years of the twentieth century determined by the following "initial conditions."
The mental level: there was the cultivation of public-communist traditions in the mass economic psychology, manifested in an approving attitude towards the innovation of the government, high social mobility and the installation of a gradual increase in the welfare as a way of life. The extreme manifestations of such psychology became the setting of a parasitical behavior. At the same time, national market traditions of economic culture were eradicated by the system together with its carriers throughout the Soviet history of the region.
The demographic level: there were the crisis processes ( the reduction of fertility and population decline), covered the agro-industrial regions of the Central Russia. The crisis was the result of a change of the migration and the reproduction paradigms of the native people, especially the rural population in the 70-80's.
The production level is characterised by the structural and technological features of the regional economy. A distinctive feature of the region's economy before the reforms – the systematic role of the agricultural sector. Regions of this type regularly experienced a system crisis, and for a long time they remained in the depression. Economic processes in the region had been affected by the factors such as the structural decline of the light industry and the military-industrial complex, the system crisis of the agrarian sector, weak own resourceful and financial base, and the unstable socio-political situation.
Currently, based on agro-subcomplexes, having been developed during the Soviet period, grain, oil, sugar, fruit and vegetables, milk and meat clusters are formed now.
As a rule, livestock is considered to be in a less favorable position. The vast majority of households prefer to engage in crop production due to the following circumstances:
•Plant-growing is considered by the farmers as less risky agricultural crop than livestock;
• seasonal crop production limits the production process (cycle) for a period of two months to six months;
According to the innovational aspect, the activity of the most agricultural enterprises face the several problems, such as:
• Cultivation of crops is more profitable than the production of beef cattle,
• low creditworthiness of agricultural enterprises, which prevents the use of resources of the financial market;
• Slow development of market institutions, the legal and procedural implementation of forms of land tenure and land use, attractive to investment and innovation.
The deterrent factors for the development of agriculture in the region are:
• the inadequate supply of human resources together with the negative trends in the demography of the village;
• high level of depreciation of MF in agriculture and in the processing industries;
• destructive processes in land use, decline in the quality of the land fund (primitivisation of crop rotation, soil pollution and neglect of soil);
• low level of resources of the potential livestock (number of livestock, the level of forage and fodder).
At the same time, agriculture of the Tambov region has certain competitive advantages for the effective development of the region. They are:
It seems that the prospects of the Tambov region, as the agro-industrial region, is associated with the following processes.
At first, due to the low efficiency of the existing system of state support of agriculture and regulatory restrictions which are imposed on Russia by the WTO, there was an objective need to change the system of regulation of innovation and improvement of measures to stimulate innovation in the regional agricultural business.
Secondly, the development of agriculture in the region will be determined by the increasing process of integration of horizontal and vertical types. As the experience in the agricultural sector, the efficiency of agricultural enterprises depends on their size. Intensification of integration processes due to the needs of producers themselves. With the increase of the farms the productivity is growing at an average of 1.5. The formation and the development of integrated structures in agriculture can be an important factor in improving the economic efficiency of agriculture in Russia.
1. Tambov Region: Essays on the socio-economic development / ed. VM Yuriev. - Tambov: Izd TSU them. GR Derzhavin, 2007. - S. 23.
2. The Economy of the Tambov region in 70 years. Statistical Yearbook. Tambov, 1987. - S. 65.
3. Regions of Russia. Socio-economic indicators. 2010: Stat. Sat / Rosstat. - M., 2010.