- About project
- Results and Awards
- Affiliate Programs
- International services
Gorbunova Olga Nikolaevna, candidate of of economics, doctoral candidate
Bocharova Oksana Nikolaevna, , candidate of of economics, doctoral candidate
Tambov State University named after G.R. Derzhavin, Russia
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Russia";
The article considers the peculiarities of influence of various institutions in the process of formation and development of the labour and intellectual potential of the person at different stages of its life cycle.
Keywords: labour potential of worker, the life cycle of the worker, the labor resource.
Human knowledge and skills have no value until they are used in a business situation. The intellectual abilities - first of all, the ability to extract value from his stock of knowledge, abilities and skills, referred to as the intellectual capital. Therefore, speaking about intellectual potential, we are dealing with labour potential, by means of which there is the implementation of the first.
In his development from birth to death a person passes through a number of natural age-related stages, each of which characterizes the special condition of its natural and acquired properties that determine the ability to implement the labour activity, characterizes the degree of its interaction with the educational, industrial, scientific and cultural spheres. It is obvious, that each stage requires special investments in the formation of labour potential of the individual, the absence of which could not fully compensate for any delayed costs at a later stage. To identify ways of influence on the formation of human potential from the different socio-economic institutions researchers use the concept of the product life cycle labour force.
The life cycle of a worker means the sequence of reproduction, development and implementation of the labour potential of an employee throughout his life prelabour , labour, post-labour existing labour capacity. 
Through all the dispensations we are talking not just about the productive qualities of the person. In this case, we mean the people themselves-the employees involved to take part in production activities or already retired from it.
Intellectual, moral, psychological and other personal factors that are developed and improved in the different periods of human life, providing important, and sometimes decisive influence on the formation and implementation of the labour potential of an employee, the quality of its production activities. All the periods of human life are closely interrelated, therefore it is impossible to achieve high efficiency of work, acting on to one or several of the processes of life or limiting the impact of a single period.
Before the beginning of the labor period, during it and after the completion of the active employment and retirement person is experiencing the impact of the different institutions. Their composition is very diverse - from the systems of upbringing and education, employers in the institutions of social security at different levels of government (Federal, regional, municipal) and to one degree or another obvious, but the arrangement of the relationship and interaction between them is a very important problem of socio-economic development of our society.
The liberalization of the educational-upbringing process, the intensification of labour migration, formation of the market of professional training, the establishment of the employment market and a number of other processes significantly changed the composition and character of the activities of the institutions, which have an impact on the essential characteristics of human labour and intellectual potential.
The main subject under the influence of which is the formation, development and realization of the potential of worker, individual himself is the main subject in all periods of the life cycle, preparing, accepting and implementing the main part of the decision defining the objectives, the means and the contents of its activities on the basis of the principle of self-government. However, the effectiveness of exposure of the employee to the extent of their potential capacity for work and creative activities could not be achieved without strong and effective human interaction with the other actors involved in this process. Therefore, the formation of the labour and intellectual capacity of the person is the subject-to-object in nature. In other words, the worker is both the object and the subject, forming its own objectives, determining the needs and implementing them almost as the subject of the process of the formation of human potential, while also contributing to solving the problems of development of the enterprise, region, the country as a whole as an object (media) of the labor potential.
Another institution, exerting influence on the formation of human potential, is the institution of the family.
In our days the family is the undisputed universal value, the main source of transmission of cultural heritage, national traditions and ethical norms, the value of which today not only increases for each of the individual, but also for Russia as a whole. The family is a powerful social institution, which is inextricably linked with the economy, social order, public and cultural structures.
The most important social function of the family is the upbringing and development of children, socialization of the younger generation. It is the family where the development of the personality is, first of all its spiritual sphere, which is associated with the construction of the own hierarchy of values, goals, formed under the influence, first of all, family traditions, as well as individual life experience, acquired in the process of education and self-education. Thus, the family is the initial stage of «spiritual maturation» of the person, that is, the development of moral, ethical, and other ideals and values.
At this stage of development of the society irrespective of the stage of the life cycle the education influences the employee’s potential. General education is a compulsory basis, the preliminary phase of the formation of human potential. The same can be said of the primary professional and secondary special education, which provides the formation of a labor resource at a higher level, but still do not provide the graduates with the necessary-combination of qualities that define the further path of development (the accumulation of human capital). The ability of the further movement through the continuous training is laid in the future specialists of the vocational education system.
It appears that in these conditions the education system must adapt to the extremely difficult external environment, presenting new requirements to the organization of the system of training of specialists and the quality of produced system of a product that are directly connected with the knowledge of specialists, how much will formed human resources be demanded in the economy, and, ultimately, whether the received education will ensure its owner the employment in conditions of constant and unpredictable changes.
A new type of economic development in the information society, creates the need for workers several times during the life to change professions, constantly raise their qualification. Gradually consumers are increasingly involved in the production of products for their own needs.  If the traditional system of education is oriented mainly on the education of man in his younger years, that is, a man in his youth receives education for life; the new system provides education through all life. "In the information society," writes Massoud, a great attention will be paid to adult education and even older people, as for society as a whole there will be the possibility for adults and older people to adapt to the rapid changes in society; the increasing proportion of older people in the population makes the task urgent to give these people the opportunities for the development of their knowledge and skills". 
The above mentioned peculiarities of the formation of human potential in many ways determine the possibility of its implementation. Much is caused by formation, a complex of professional knowledge and skills. On the economic activity of the person, his attitude to work, the structure of needs, motivation significantly affects education. The productivity of the worker depends on how he is moral, disciplined, initiative, physically and mentally healthy, law-abiding, religious, patriotic, ambitious. 
The consideration of the educational component of human resource is enough often limited to issues of education and training, which today does not correspond to the socio-economic realities. Formation is only the initial stage in the development of the educational component of the human capital of an individual; the subsequent stages of the cycle are connected with its accumulation. In this regard, we are close to a research position, resulting trajectory of the permanent development of human resource.
At present a great attention is paid to the employee’s potential in a post industrial period, aimed to use effectively knowledge, experience, labour skills, accumulated for a long period of time.
So, the initial stage of the manifestations of labour and intellectual potential is the formation of a potential labor resource of the individual, understood as the sum of the innate abilities of the person, as well as acquired as a result of education, primary, General, secondary special, intra-firm education, skills and experience, requiring significant investment from a variety of sources. Through the labour market the labour resource gets the opportunity to participate in the process of production and of the potential becomes actual. The result of its operation is the production of goods and services, as well as the accumulation of new qualitative features of human capital, economically and socially necessary fields of labor potential. In addition to the additional properties, acquired through work, the potential employee receives improvement as a result of self-investment, continuous education. This provides its transition to a higher level of quality.
The close cooperation of the different actors, and, first of all, large enterprises and local authorities, allows you to better formulate potential for effective employee on the basis of constructive cooperation and optimization of the interests of the individual, the family, employer, educational and rehabilitation organizations and local administration.