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Tambov State University named after G.R. Derzhavin, Russia
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Russia";
One of the main strategies in the development of agriculture is presented in this article. It is a rural tourism. The new Russia needs to support agriculture desperately, so that it doesn’t fall under the pressure of the more competitive foreign rivals. And today there are measures of "green box", which mainly focused on rural social development, preservation of the rural population, providing for the farmers a decent standard of living. One of these measures is to support alternative employment in rural areas. In this aspect, the most perspective promising solution to our farmers could be rural tourism.
Keywords: Rural tourism, agriculture, agricultural enterprises, competitiveness, entrepreneurship, economics.
Russia's accession to the WTO, most scared of the agrarians. For twenty years the post-Soviet period, the country was unable to revive the formerly quite powerful agriculture.
For many industrial and other related indicators, we have not yet reached the level of 1990.
Russian farmers were receiving relatively strong support not so long ago, although it is obviously not enough. And now, in conditions of deficiency of infrastructure, technologically backward production, the acute shortage of all major resources we are going to compete on the world market according to the rules, which don't we come up with.
In the new conditions of Russia it is necessary to support the weak agriculture, so that it does not fall under the onslaught of the more competitive foreign rivals. And for Russia today the necessary measures «green box», which are mainly directed to the social development of rural areas, the preservation of the rural population, providing for the farmers a decent level of life. One such measure is the support of alternative employment in rural areas, which is not sufficient. In this light, the most promising solution for our farmers can become a rural tourism. On this way in their time went developed countries of Europe. And they did not miscalculate.
The strategic goal of the development of rural tourism in Russia is the creation of a competitive national tourist product in the internal and world markets. It must be able to meet the needs of our fellow citizens as well as foreigners, to expand domestic tourism, to provide steady growth of volumes of inbound tourism, to provide complex development of the recreational areas and tourist centres, taking into account the socio-economic interests of their populations, as well as save and resume the natural environment and historical and cultural heritage and to supplement the state and local budgets.
Activity in the sphere of rural tourism is a business, the idea of which is that the villagers rent to tourists in renting their premises, or «guest» home systematically, producing the income. Rural tourism associated with a visit to a rural area with cultural-informative purpose, acquaintance with the traditional folk life, but may also pursue other objectives: introduction to traditional trades and crafts, visits to religious sites and centers.
Rural tourism, as the rest in rural areas, is not only a fashion, but also a necessity. Pollution of urban environment, the dynamic and busy rhythm of life in cities, induces in citizens’ desire peace and solitude among the clean natural environment. It gives man the possibility to turn to the sources of the people, to the ancient natural environment and the cultural heritage, which will meet the specific hobbies, as the study of the historical, cultural, ethnographic and architectural heritage, customs and crafts, native to the region, acquaintance with local people's clothes, collection of folklore, learning of the local language or dialect, amateur photography, collecting of herbs and minerals. Especially it is characteristic for rural tourism part in agricultural work, such as vegetable-growing, bee-keeping, collection of herbs and mushrooms, floriculture. It is characteristic for rural tourism as well and getting acquainted with the local cuisine. The main role in rural tourism plays an owner. It provides most of the services provides home-prepared of ecologically clean products, performs the functions of a hospitable host. It was from him tourists to know the spiritual world of local residents. The degree of satisfaction of tourists rest in the village depends on the skill, the culture, the friendliness of the owner.
One of the reasons for the rapid development of rural tourism is a crisis in the agricultural sector. In the modern era the process of performance and knowledge-intensive agriculture leadsto a reduction of jobs. And in the villages it leads to unemployment. In fact, in many rural regions in Europe, agriculture has ceased to be the most important form of land use and the most important activities of the rural community. The share of communities working in the agricultural sector in Greece is 30% of their total number, in Portugal - 24%, in Spain and Ireland - 17%, in Italy - 12%, in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK from 2% to 7%. Therefore, it was necessary to find new kinds of activities, which have been replaced or supplemented by agricultural activities. The search for approaches to solving this problem explains the increased interest in rural tourism. This is in rapid development can liven up a lot of rural regions. Statistical studies show, that 35% of the citizens in the EU prefer to spend vacations in the countryside. In the Netherlands, their share is particularly high - 49%.
The Federal law on the development of agrarian tourism as a sector of the national economy was adopted in Italy, 5 December 1985. Rural tourism creates new jobs and brings in the real income regions. Italy in Europe takes first place for rural tourism, its income on average is 350 million dollars.
Rural tourism is one of the important directions in the policy of rural development, as an alternative to industrialization and the means of maintenance of the population in less industrialized regions. In the West have been formed two types of rural tourism - «mixed» and «net». The first is based on peasant (farmer) farms, which raise livestock and vegetables and also take tourists. It gives about 25% of the profits of the farm family. And most of this money is reinvested in home improvements, updated interior, and creation of conditions for the guests. The second is by the activity on service of tourists, providing hotel services in the houses, which perform the role of mini-hotels.
States and the European Union, since the farmhouse was originally considered as a social shock absorber for the restructuring of the agrarian sector of the economy, allowing you to transfer the surplus of labour in the alternative sector of services and to create new jobs in rural areas. Another crucial factor in the successful development of holiday sector was the fact that the holiday product answered the demands of new consumers with average income, which is the largest segment of the solvent demand. In addition it should be noted that the micro-economic model of agro-tourism has proven very effective. The production of a tourist product in comparison with other sectors of the travel industry looks extremely cost-efficient, and therefore, the agro-tourism is to compete in terms of «price-quality» with other tourist products.
According to expert estimates, the average number of tourist potential of Russia is 55,8 %. Such a high figure shows that more than half of the landscape-geographical and climatic resources of the country can be used for the development of various tourism destinations to meet the needs of tourists (for comparison, Turkey's tourism potential is of 38.4%, Greece - 35%, Italy - 49%, France, Spain and Germany, a few more than 50%). Thus, Russia is a very promising country for the complex development of tourism.
Letting out for rent visitors quickly assimilated families and brings them additional income. But this income is seasonal and depends very little on homeowners. To get a stable income we need to require registration of the owner of the guest house an individual entrepreneur. Then the activities of the family becomes a professional, requires knowledge, skills and to meet certain standards. The network of guest houses developed in the Altai territory and on Lake Baikal, in the Krasnodar region and Karelia, Yakutia, Kaliningrad, Moscow and Leningrad regions. Kaliningrad-guest houses, working on the program of rural tourism, lure tourists from Germany, Poland and the Baltic countries. The purpose of the development of rural guest houses in Kaliningrad region is to ensure the work of the villagers, to stop the outflow of young people in the city. Now the average farmer in the summer season can earn up to 9 thousand Euro at the rate of 10 Euro per day, these young people managed to interest. Tourist season increased - now home can take tourists all year round. In the Republic of Altai the first 100 guests took in the summer of 2000, the following summer the number of guests increased to 400. During the summit of 2005, the owners of «green (guest) houses» have prepared the first tour «the New year in the village of Gorny Altai» and took 43 guest in the winter. By the summer of 2006 there were created 150 tourist places in six villages of Tchemalsky region and made 330 guests. Today in the Altai host family with two - three guest house, only during the summer period earns about 90-120 thousand rubles, which contributes to its financial sustainability.
It is important that rural tourism contributes to improving the lives and the families that have received tourists. It is known that when the family is waiting for guests, then tries to support its own house in order, to create for them the maximum comfort. Rural tourism helps local residents quickly solve socio-economic problems of their families, to raise their educational and cultural level, to provide good education to children, to improve housing and elevate the family plot. Rural tourism helps to be a reasonable master in their field and on their land, helps to take members of the family interesting, profitable and worthy of respect for labour.
Unfortunately, in spite of the existing in the Russian Federation real examples of organization of rural tourism activities, it should be stated practical absence in the Russian Federation of normative-legal base, specifically regulating holiday activities as such:
For today in Russia the regional administration are committed to organizing function in the development of agro-tourism. And so it was in the countries of the «first wave», where the first decisions were adopted and the relevant laws and programs at the level of regions, and then holiday initiative was supported and was legally formalized by the Central authorities and at the level of the EU in the framework of the Common agricultural policy of the EU.
The role of regional authorities for the development of rural tourism today is very important as it is at the stage of formation tourist destinations in the region, and at the stage of advancement of the total tourist product to the foreign market.
In other words, speaking about the support of rural tourism, it should be remembered that it is the derivative element of municipal social policy, closely constraining with such spheres, as local self-government, development of self-regulating public organizations, a system support of small business.
Therefore, we can summarize: the rural tourism is an activity of the rural population, which is connected with the rural environment, rural house and occupations where put in the center of attention of the man and nature. Rural tourism, in contrast to mass, does not render harmful influence on the environment and, at the same time, makes a significant contribution to regional development. It allows the use of the existing housing Fund, reducing investment costs and prevents excessive use of forest and pasture areas.
1. O. Sevan Formation of cultural policy and tourism development in small towns of Russia: socio-cultural aspect // People, culture and society in the context of globalization of the modern world. - RICK., 2005. - P.345-355.
2. The strategy of the development of rural tourism // ЕКОВАСТ. - Archive RICK and Russian ЕКОВАСТ. - M., 2003.