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FOR THE ISSUE OF ETHICAL ASPECTS OF ACTIVITY OF THE SPECIALIST OF SERVICE OF MARKETING
Roinishvili David, Student of Business Administration MBA Programme
Bagrationi Irma, Doctor of Philosophy, Assistant Professor
Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University
The present paper outlines experience of preparation of specialists in the field of marketing convinces that is a question not of their adaptation to traditional "road" structural divisions acting the enterprises, and about performance of essentially new system function of the managing subject on its interaction with the market.
The paper underlines that the consumer market represents the commercial environment which is accompanied by market attitudes and commercial business; therefore there is a close communication of the market, commerce and commercial business.
The paper discusses that the market environment is characterized by uncertainty and instability. The businessman should collide with unforeseen circumstances that inevitably conduct to risk of material losses. However if it will carefully think over business offers the chance of a prize at it will be above than a degree of danger of adequate losses in cost expression. The businessman in the activity should be guided by innovations and all those changes which occur in an environment. It is necessary for it to know weak and strengths of the market to consider and react to its any changes. All of them provide steady competitive advantages to trade enterprise.
The author concludes that from the point of view of professionalism the specialist of service of marketing should have sufficient knowledge and possess practical skills. One of conditions of successful activity of the worker is its adaptation to the new organizational-economic and social conditions connected with origin and development of the market.
Key Words: preparation of specialists, the field of marketing, technologies of marketing activity, the specialist of service of marketing, skills of professional behavior.
Experience of preparation of specialists in the field of marketing convinces that is a question not of their adaptation to traditional "road" structural divisions acting the enterprises, and about performance of essentially new system function of the managing subject on its interaction with the market.
It is well known, that the enterprises, first of all, see in the graduate of the specialist capable to realize in practice concrete procedures and technologies of marketing activity, for example, to investigate and segment the market, to lead an advertising campaign, to develop idea of new production. Alongside with it the great value is given to requirements to personal qualities of the specialist. Considering features of function of marketing at the enterprise, it is a question about skills to communicate of the specialist in marketing, its analytical abilities, skills of business dialogue, skill to work in a command, objectivity of a self-estimation. Also in the field of marketing should know bases of modern management, sociology, psychology, the right, the finance, foreign languages, to own computer techniques.
What forces businessmen to rush to waves of the unstable market and not mastered business? First of all, as show sociological researches, it is aspiration to personal freedom and independence, desire to realize the professional abilities, to become the provided person, to raise the well-being; the aspiration to bring is more than advantage, to gain authority of relatives and associates. The portrait of the businessman looks double. In it negative features are combined both positive. So, it is possible to note, that the today's businessman is vigorous, initiative and resourceful – 40%, that it the grabber and aspires to an easy money – 30%, at it good organizing abilities – 27%, it is indifferent to the state and public interests – 26%, to it are peculiar egoism – 24%, It the professional, is competent of business and the expert on the business – 20%, diligence and high working capacity – 16% are peculiar to it, it is dishonorable, dishonest and unessential in affairs – 15%, strictly observes the basic requirement in business «wish to live itself, enable to live another» – 8%. As it turns out, at summation of estimations positive qualities outweigh negative. It forces to hope, that occurrence of a new class our society will give, eventually, positive results.
Chapter I – Marketing as the Type of Thinking
As is generally known, marketing is closely connected with intra-firm management. It is practically impossible to divide marketing and management, marketing and manufacture - these functions more and more merge. Marketing - one of the major concepts of operation of business in market conditions, it allows making real programs of manufacture and realization, promotes fast reaction to the changes occurring in external business-environment and in the market in particular and creates essential advantages in competitive struggle. Marketing activity at any degree of development of the market is capable to correct actions of economic subjects, consumers and manufacturers. “Marketing is a mentality and the Type of Thinking. It fairly name philosophy of management, philosophy of business in conditions of market attitudes. All over the world marketing is recognized almost by the most effective tool which allows the enterprise to not concede to the competitor, to expand selling, to involve investments and as consequence, to increase the income and profit” (Fromm, 1999:124). Distributing this position on all subjects of business of the country, it is correct to approve, that the national economy is doomed to backwardness until heads of subjects of business of all levels do not realize, that the keystone to success of commercial activity is covered in thorough studying and knowledge of the market. Unfortunately, while such specialist of service of marketing which success is provided by professional behavior in the market, very little, and presence of marketing experts each fifth enterprise can brag only. And in fact the enterprise cannot be better than the service of marketing.
On results of sociological inspection the circle of the most important (according to heads and experts of the enterprises) marketing works is certain. Their ranged list looks as follows:
- Estimation of capacity and share of the market;
- Gathering, processing and the analysis of the market information;
- Definition of requirements of consumers;
- Formation of image of the enterprise;
- Segmentation of the market;
- An estimation of competitiveness of the goods;
- A choice of market partners;
- Development of the new goods;
- The organization of public relations (Johnson & Abramov, 2004:197)
At the same time inspection has shown, that the enterprises are for the present focused basically on work with the goods traditional for them, giving there is less than attention to development of essentially new and modified products. At formation of the prices the flexible, stimulating prices, price lines are poorly used. Advantage is given the extensive form of distribution of the goods. Strategy of an output on the new markets is insufficiently applied.
Chapter II – Mark-Ethics as Ethical Aspects of Activity of Specialists in Marketing
It is known, that market transactions are made sometimes with use of doubtful means, in particular payoff of officials. In this connection there is a question on morally-ethical aspects of activity of managers and Mark-Ethics (marketing plus ethics). Its value for preparation of managers is especially great, that many perceive the market as a symbol of permissiveness and freedom from any moral terminators. Quite often foreign partners complain that no vital issue can be solved without corresponding donation. Alongside with the internal reasons of the similar phenomena caused by disorder becoming of the market, mark also "import" of corruption methods of business management as in conditions of political instability and economic ailments to risk simply mafia capital with habitual for it methods of work is quite often ready only speculative, and even.
It needs to be noticed, that the nature of modern corruption as global phenomenon explains on a miscellaneous. If to try to systematize various treatments, it is possible to note the following:
- References to human nature;
- References to imperfection of laws;
- The reasons laying in the business, organizational complication of business, increase in a role of intermediaries, arrival to business of the big number of the people who are not possessing elementary market culture and capable only "to do" money, instead of to earn them;
- Change of standards of legal requirements for methods of economic activities (Johnson & Abramov, 2004:297-299)
Each of noted reasons, probably, has the reason, and depending on concrete circumstances this or that of them is pushed in the foreground.
It is possible to allocate some levels of struggle against corruption in national frameworks and the international attitudes.
Naive the thesis looks, that the market can overcome corruption itself. In our opinion, are insolvent such recipes as increase of salaries to officials. Causes also doubt the point of view, that when people will be free proprietors, the official has nothing to trade. In a world practice they pass to development of norms of the civilized mutual relations of the market and authority. It is considered, that the conditions generating corruption, are essentially narrowed by legitimating of systems of transfer of interests of business in representative bodies and the governmental device.
Any specialist of service of marketing should seize skills of professional behavior, following business ethics and etiquette of the businessman. The last includes:
- Rules of representation and acquaintance;
- Rules of conducting business conversations;
- Rules of business correspondence and telephone conversations;
- Requirements to external shape, manners, business clothes;
- Requirements to speech;
- Knowledge of the business report and etc. (Johnson & Abramov, 2004:227)
We agree with Blackwell Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Marketing of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gary Armstrong’s opinion, which considers, that “no matter how big or small a marketing team may be, it needs diverse skills in order to turn marketing objectives into action. This range from highly analytical tasks – for example, those used to build an organization’s marketing intelligence system – to creative abilities that can lead to ‘breakthrough’ thinking that opens up whole new segments in the market” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2007:257).
Integrating these skills requires all marketing managers to plan their activities to align with “higher marketing objectives, whether the individuals are working as marketing specialists or project coordinators” (Bradley, 2007:195).
Plans for any marketing activity should be driven from a deep understanding of the profiles and behavior of target customers, including breakthrough customer insights. These insights should drive strategy and practical action plans to meet specific marketing objectives, such as improving products or services or developing compelling propositions and communications. The challenge for marketers is then to keep activities on time, on budget and aligned to the overall marketing strategy right through the stages of execution. This may involve managing marketing staff, information, projects, and external suppliers, and coordinating the work of different disciplines. As marketers may need to communicate up, down, and across the organization to share insights from the market and check that the company delivers on its brand promise, they will often benefit from gaining grounding in skills beyond the marketing function in order to improve collaboration.
Thus, specialists in marketing activity management at enterprises are trained for solving tasks of marketing organization and planning, advertising, consumer research, research of communication services demand perspectives as well as international marketing.
Chapter III – Employment of Specialists in Marketing
It is interesting for us, that the interrogation lead per 1994 (in London) pursued the purpose to reveal real employment of the graduates-experts in marketing, posts borrowed by them, prospects of growth, and also to receive offers on perfection of preparation of such specialists. From 90 graduates 1994 it is interrogated 67 person (74,5%), from them it is direct on a specialty 59%, on specialties accompanying or close to marketing - 34% work, have not found a job for the various reasons - 7%. As it turns out, graduates borrow posts marketing-directors of the enterprises, chiefs of departments of marketing, managers on marketing, economists of analytical departments, experts on data processing market researches, the trading authorized firms, experts on advertising, experts of investment departments, economists of commercial banks, etc. At the enterprises of industrial sphere 40%, in trade enterprises - 38%, financial sphere - 22% work, thus 41%, under the recommendation - 59% have independently got a job. Opportunities of the further promotion have specified 84% interrogated (Hart, 1999:172).
As we know, abroad during becoming the market one trading firms succeeded in the commercial business and others - suffered defeat. Substantially it has been connected with search and development of the person of the specialist of service of marketing as maker, providing success to the firm. In the simplified understanding the businessman is some kind of the professional, able to make correct commercial decisions which promote achievement of the purposes of trade enterprise.
It needs to be noticed here, that representatives of different foreign schools tried “to generate requirements to which there should correspond to the specialist of service of marketing in conditions of the civilized market” (Kotler, Wong & Armstrong, 2005:314) However there was an opinion what to concretize these requirements it is not obviously possible, by virtue of specificity of a trade and variety of functions carried out by the specialist of service of marketing. Besides a situation in work and commercial processes constantly change, therefore the commercial worker should possess aspiration to change methods and receptions in the activity. In it - ability one of the basic qualities of the commercial worker also consists in various conditions to solve the problems put before it. Hence, the general estimation of personal and business qualities of the specialist can be formulated, but the concrete requirements connected with its various activity and features of trade enterprise, will differ, naturally.
We agree with Blackwell Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Marketing of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gary Armstrong’s opinion, which considers, that “the market environment is characterized by uncertainty and instability. The specialist of service of marketing should collide with unforeseen circumstances that inevitably conduct to risk of material losses. However if it will carefully think over business offers the chance of a prize at it will be above than a degree of danger of adequate losses in cost expression. The specialist of service of marketing in the activity should be guided by innovations and all those changes which occur in an environment. It is necessary for it to know weak and strengths of the market to consider and react to its any changes. All of them provide steady competitive advantages to trade enterprise” (Armstrong & Harker, 2009:407-408).
From the above-mentioned we may conclude, that the consumer market represents the commercial environment which is accompanied by market attitudes and commercial business; therefore there is a close communication of the market, commerce and commercial business.
The analysis of the lead inspections allows making a number of the important conclusions:
- Under a pressure of the market the significant part of the enterprises realizes necessity of marketing activity which is in most cases carried out spontaneously, to the touch, without the due professional approach;
- The specialist of service of marketing should:
a. To carry out commercial actions proceeding from the purposes and strategy of the enterprise;
b. To aspire to succeed in the decision of commercial problems;
c. To analyze and estimate structure of the commodity market, dynamics of consumer demand, market condition, opportunities of commodity producers;
d. To carry on business negotiations with partners, it is convincing to give reason accustom to drinking offers and intentions.
e. To develop tactics directed on increase of efficiency of purchases and sales of the goods.
- Practice shows, that the people allocated by commercial abilities, as a rule, are inventive and vigorous. They prefer to make independently the decisions aimed at reception of concrete results, are susceptible to innovations and ready to risk;
- Preparation of specialists in the field of the marketing, owning modern receptions, procedures, technologies of marketing activity at a level of the enterprises, becomes one of the major and perspective problems;
- By virtue of the sharpest shortage of specialists for the enterprises of various branches of economy the authoritative center of preparation of specialists in marketing is necessary;
- By preparation of specialists it is necessary to strengthen attention to mastering by concrete methods, procedures and technologies of marketing activity. At the same time in the curriculum and curriculums it is necessary to consider all complex of modern requirements to the specialist in marketing (not being limited only functional knowledge), including formation of personal qualities and reception of the expanded circle of knowledge;
- On the basis of constant studying needs of the enterprises it is necessary to form in high schools "banks of vacancies" for graduates, to give them demanded knowledge of receptions and ways of personal presentation at a choice of a place of the future work.
1. Fromm Erich Seligman, “Man for Himself, an Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics”, London, Routledge Publishing House, 1999.
2. Johnson Kenneth, Abramov Igor, Business Ethics: A Manual for Managing, A Responsible Business, Enterprise in Emerging, Market Economies, A publication of the “Good Governance Program”, US Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, Washington, 2004.
3. Hart Keith, Putting Marketing Ideas into Action, London, Library Association Publishing, 1999.
4. Kotler Philip, Armstrong Gary, Principles of Marketing, New Jersey, Pearson, 2007.
5. Bradley Nigel, Marketing Research: Tools and Techniques, Oxford University Press, 2007.
6. Kotler Philip, Wong Veronica, Saunders John and Armstrong Gary, Principles of Marketing, Fourth European Edition, Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2005.
7. Armstrong Gary, Harker Michael, Kotler Philip, Brennan Ross, Marketing: An Introduction, Harlow, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2009.