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THE FINANCIAL ADMINISTRATION MECHANISM'S IMPROVEMENT IN THE AGRICULTURAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW PARADIGM OF THE EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Constantin Nesterenco, RhD in Pedogogy
Technical and Agricultural College of Soroca
In this thesis there is mentioned about the financial administration mechabism's improvement of the agricultural institutions through the improvement of the nev paradigm of the European Educational System. There are shovn the advantages of the managerial reform. It vas spoken about the leadership's levels. In conclusions vere indicated the general vays of the educational management's reform.
Key-world: agricultural education; european educational system; the management's functions (the authorities' functions); educational institition; financial autonomy; managerial levels; the institutions' management.
In the field of the education, as in other fields of the national economy, a part of the economical mechanism is the organization of the educational system in general as well as its all other parts. It is realized through the creation and the functioning of the educational system of different level and, at the same time, through the rights' distribution between them. The qualitative changes that take place today in educational institutions' structure are accompanied by the essential changes in the managerial authorities and in the managerial process's nature of the educational system.
The leadership in the, education is a persevering activity of all educations subjects for the insurance of the creation and best functioning, compulsory development of every educational institution, of all the levels of the educational system. The scientific principles, of system, of complex, of efficiency, of final result's orientation, the social and state elements blending in leadership, the best correlation of centralization and decentralization, the reasonable relation of the rights, obligations and responsibilities, to our mind, render very well the essence of the educational institutions in the market economy's conditions.
Studying the educational institutions' leadership system it is examined the educational institution as the object of leadership and the managerial authorities of different level and various state bodies of educational institutions as the subject of leadership.
At the same time with the restoration of the economics of Republic of Moldova and with the foundation of the market's relations, it is necessary to pass from the administrative system of order to a democratic one in the field of education. The process of decentralization of the leadership in the educational institutions means, firstly, to take away the monopoly of the state bodies and to reduce the excessive administrative power, to take away the planned and directed regulation of all the aspects of the educational institutions' activities that must be accompanied by the insurance of the independence and their autonomy.
The analysis of the contemporary practice of functioning of the staff from the vocational education proves that the nature, the character and the technologies of the market relations had not reached the organizational structure of the local authorities. Among the causes of this phenomena can be mentioned: the insufficiently information in the organizational managerial aspects, authoritative – legislative, of procedure and content, the inert and preserved thinking and over fulfilled methods of the manager that were established in the previous government.
A though it was spoken abundant, in on our point of view, at all the levels of management of the education it is necessary to pay attention on the leading of the different aspects of the educational activity. At the same time the leadership should be to our mind one of the main direction of the managerial influence, but the possession of information's must be the central condition in the efficiency of any management.
The study demonstrated that in Republic of Moldova the statistics from the education is a modest one, less accessible for the specialists and managers.
At the same time, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics, as a rule, combine and complete reciprocal. With the aim of solving the problem of the informational insurance of the management in the education, it is efficiently to organize seminars concerning the methodical problem of the management of different aspects from the education (republican, departmental), the elaboration of the automated informational technologies, the management of the educational system's functioning. The elements of this technology that contain a computerized selection of the statistic evidence dates are implemented in different ways and sections of the Agricultural Ministry and Alimentary Industry, as well as in local departmental offices. As a result, it was observed an increase of the efficiency, and the information about the subordinated institutions became ample that insurances premises for the adopting of some managerial motivated decisions.
Analyzing the development of the changes in the educational system, we can conclude that in general the managerial system wasn't ready for a fast passing from a hard centralization to a high decentralization. The destruction of the old relations and the lack of new one's lead to a centralization based on the administrative principles very often it is mentioned about “the lose of the management” at a republican level, in the districts especially regarding the inferior authorities.
Central bodies must involve themselves at the solving of the following problems: the distribution of the educational institutions according the territorial principle, the impact on the functioning's efficiency of these institutions and the expenses for these institutions.
The removing of the authorities from the strategic management of the educational institutions leads to the degrading of the educational system from our country to a macro economical level that is characteristic for developmental countries. One of the influent directions of the authorities it is the politics that consist in the financial possibilities' equalization of different territories and the introduction of some financial guaranteed standards of educational institutions. At the same time, the republican structures and departmental structures will not intervene economical in the efficient management of the educational institutions in order not to neglect the local management of the educational institutions. The main level of the management for the majority of the educational institutions is the local one.
It is impossible to realize rapidly the educational system's reform. The reorganization of the educational institutions must be done gradually because of the conservatism of the educational institutions. We share the scientists point of view considering that “the organizational process must last 10-12 years, that should be minimum a school generation” [12, p.95]. The world experience shows that can be successfully only those reforms that are linked with the educational management that have a theoretical base and motivate the improvement's necessity of these reforms.
A principal role both in the state institutions and in those private ones, the extra budgetary activity it has changed a little the education's values, firstly in the vocational education, from the education, science and culture to a material interest of the employees. In the market relations' conditions the state contradictions become marc difficult and in the educational institutions, and in the employee's personality from the educational institutions.
In the majority of the economical developed countries, the educational institutions' management is realized at three levels, excluding the educational institution: central, departmental and local. Only in some countries the structure is made of two levels (for example, in Great Britain). But the level of each level in the educational institutions' management and in the distribution of the responsibilities between them differs from a country to another. “The right Organization, the managerial forms and methods in education depend, greatly, on the state social organization, on the country”[10, p.111].
The central managerial level in education is represented, usually, by the Minister of Education, but in some countries even by two Ministries (the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of tligher Education). In the most European countries (Grece, England, Ireland, Italy, Norwegian, Portugal, France etc.) even in Japan this managerial level has the great mandates in taking the decisions that deals with educational institutions' management. At the same time, in federations (as Germany, the SUA, Canada, Switzerland etc.), where according to the constitution, the educational responsibility is based on the federation's subjects (regions, states, provinces, cantons), the last ones having a central managerial role. In these states the main role is the educational ministries' role (the departments) of the subjects' federation but the federal ministries or do not exist (for instance, Canada, Switzerland etc.) or have limited mandates, as in the USA, where in 1989 was founded a separated ministry of education. Commune for these systems it is that the regional structures hove the main responsibility, without changing it to another level. Many foreign scientists consider that the members of the European Union, the country are Germany, where schools can use not only the workbooks included in the approved list by the Ministry [7, p.100].
Opposite to the centralized managerial system in the educational institutions, in some countries were established decentralization traditions. In the USA, in each state function personal legislative documents in the management's field of the institutions, at a state level are established the terms of the compulsory education, the conditions of the admission in different institutions, the demands concerning the pedagogues' qualification, the minimum size of the salary, and of course the regulations concerning the sources and size of the financing of the educational institutions. In our days, the autonomy of the managerial regional and local authorities and even those of the educational institutions reduces, but at the same time it is very essential. This is greatly due to the financial system. The due of the state and federal investments in the educational necessities raises, but they still submit themselves to the state allocated sums and to the educational constituencies.
In Great Britain was established the managerial educational system of two levels: central that is represented by four departments in education and that of the institution, the regional level is absent. In this country, the social financial insurance of the compulsory education and the higher education depends on the local councils, that create committees with large mandates and that have a double subordination to the councilor to the local administration and to the Educational National Ministry of Trade. The manager leads efficiently .
Many foreign scientists speak about the necessity and the actuality of the reforms in the educational institutions' management field. The American specialist I. Danzberger, …investigated the educational institutions' management field, declares that “the reforms are necessary and must take place, with reason that being realized in the XIX th century, the institutions de not correspond, structurally and functionally, to the demands of an efficient management and contemporary one from the educational system” [4, p.369].
The decentralization of the management of the education in the developed countries does not mean that the state does not assume responsibilities of the general situation and of the educational institutions' development. It is in its rights for the equal access of everybody to the contemporary education, comparing the changes that take place in Republic of Moldova. The World Bank had recommended to the Republic of Moldova the type of “market” of the educational system, made as a spectrum of the educational services for the necessities' fulfillment of the commander, taking into consideration the bid and demand. That's why the state must not remove from the exertion of its functions. Thus, in the 1980 s in France, that had a hard centralized administrative managerial educational system, began the process of the distribution of the mandates in the educational institutions' managerial field, was firmly established that the state, especially the central bodies, as previously have the main responsibility for the education and has the central role in the education' s development. As the French authorities “the state continues to be responsible of the education. It is the assurance of a normal functioning and basic one… The state is obliged to form and to recruit the teaching stuff, to remunerate and to pay it” [2, p.39-40].
In the USA are made experiences, as their result in a state can exist different types of educational system W.Ness [6, p.14] compares the educational system of two types from the Pennsylvania State. In one of them function 501 educational constituencies with local checking system. For this system the following characteristics can be mentioned: a bad balance concerning the payment of the teachers' work, of their job, a low lever of the graduals knowledge of the educational institutions. In the second type the centralized management is realized under the power of the National Association of the education. For this system are characteristic: the strict control of the education' s quality, a balance concerning the teachers' jab and their payment, and the lasting knowledge of the graduates. P.Wohlstetter, S.Mohrman  investigating the decentralized method of the school management and in the school's constituencies, so called the school's management (the conveying of the control from the central bodies of the state education to the individual school constituencies), also indicates both the positive aspects, and the negative ones of a management; the functional principles concerning the organization; the changing of the role of the institution's manager. Some American scientists mention the possibility of choosing the type of school (state or private one), of the educational syllabus and of the programmers with the aim of reforming the American school, the parent's insurance and the children' insurance with a suitable “educational market” . Other American scientists suggest as necessary activities the discovery of the school strategy of the parents' potential in the school's activity – “the scan of the educational market” – and investigate the problem if the parents are the changeable stimulant in the educational practice . The analysis of the main directions of reforming of the American school in the limits of the school's constituencies realized by E.Clichy was a support for activity of the creation of the school's decentralized system, with an autonomy management with few pupils. The maintenances of the standard system, approved by at a national level to our mind, it is a right decision and it is one of the parents' right to make a choice for their children .
In Great Brittan, in 1992, the colleges were not subordinated by the local authorities and became independent and autonomous. The scientists mention: “The state Control of the general education and of the vocational one raised due to the strict financial regulation and due to the insurance of the quality's demands and due to the activity's efficiency. Although seemingly it was made a passing to the full market, this area became more centralized and more checked by the state” [13, p.97].
Analyzing the educational management in the economical developed states, we can conclude that the management system of the institutions from Republic of Moldova it is similar with that “eastern” one, European and has much in commune with the germane one, that was characterized long ago through a strictly centralized management.
Speaking about the state management concerning realization plan of the strategic aims it is necessary to take in consideration not only the impact of changes in the market field, but the orientation of the educational system's connection from Republic Moldova and from the developed countries, as well as the common oriented objective to the processes of the postindustrial civilizations. In the contemporary world of the global transformations it is necessary to elaborate the macro economical priorities in management and it is necessary to present them for the society's discussions. At this managerial state level must be connected and the educational standards in keeping with the international ones. This necessity is dictated both by the economical collaboration's extension and scientific – technical one as by the increasing of the human resources' migratory wave, of the amplification of the integral processes in other activities.
To our mind, it is necessary to separate the financial problems from the educational institutions' management problems and not to reduce the problems of modernization of the management to a simply manipulation of the waves.
We are going to indicate the tendencies and the general directions of the educational management's reformation in the countries with a developed economical market, that can be applied in our country.
1. The reformation of the managerial educational bodies becomes a part of some large reforms from the country. A good example is Iceland, where some years continues the state administrative reform, that includes the educational management's reform of different level.
2. Although there exists a lot of national managerial methods in the educational organization they can be inferred, finally, to two established historical systems: centralized and descentralized. None of these two systems can not be appreciated only positive or negative. The centralized system makes easier the national standards in education, the maintaince and the consolidation of the cultural feelings of the whole population. At the same time, this system amplificates the authoritative tendencies in the educational's management, limits the teaching stuff's initiative and of local bodies, neglects the regional feature's importance, takes into consideration ampler the local peculiarities. At the same time, it should be wrong not to recognize, especially in the conditions of our country, that in our days the great decentralization of the education in some countries amplificates the tendencies “central”, make a danger for the political and cultural integrity of the country.
3. In the latest years, takes place a change in the orientation in the activity's direction and in the educational managerial bodies' functions from the efficient management in educational institutions' function to the strategically evolution of the educational institutions in the future and of the territorial educational system. Proper to this reduces the number of the efficient and control management of the functions' volume and a greater importance has the idea of the partnership, collaboration and help for the educational institutions concerning their activity's improvement and the elaboration of the development and the elaboration of the development plans.
4. In some countries with a centralized system of management in education takes place the extension of the mandates of the local educational bodies. But it can be observed and vice – verse processes, especially in countries with a decentralized management when, as a result of the educational reforms, the managerial mandates and functions pass from the local managerial bodies from education. As a result, the educational institutions obtain a larger autonomy concerning the managerial bodies in education.
5. On the influence of the developmental process of the international economical relations and in the appearance's conditions of the informational and postindustrial society was evident the convergent tendency of the centralized and decentralized systems of management in education. In those countries where was characteristic the extreme decentralization now is amplified the central bodies' role, and, vice – verse, in the countries with an excess of centralized system in education the regional bodies' functions of management become larger.
6. In the majority of the European countries in the latest years the institutions' independence was strengthened, although in some of them is seen a lasting level in the educational institutions' problem of the obligations and rights' conveying. This autonomy, as a rule, does not refer to the financial resources' administration, especially at the educational institutions' level, that can administrate these funds, strictly having the destination for their basic activity or for the performing of some concrete activities).
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