facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Page translation
 

GRAMMATICAL INTERFERENCE AS A LINGUISTIC PHENOMENON

GRAMMATICAL INTERFERENCE AS A LINGUISTIC PHENOMENON
Usachenkoi Irina, lecturer

Mykolayiv National University named after V.O. Suhomlinskiy, Ukraine

Conference participant

УДК 8127      

 

The article examines the theoretical issues of grammatical interference.

Keywords: bilingualism, language contact, interference, grammatical interference, language levels.

 

Globalization and integration of the world society call for the expansion and deepening of contacts between different countries. This is impossible without the successful and effective intercultural communication that is communication of people representing different cultures and languages. As a result of these contacts there is a process of borrowing from one language to another at different levels. This process is called interference. Recently, this question draws scientists’ attention. The objective reason for this is the topicality of this issue both in the theoretical aspect and in terms of solving practical problems of linguistics.

The term “interference” was initiated in physics, psychology, biology and other sciences. Interference as a phenomenon is defined by the science which analyses it. Thus, the definition of interference in physics is “a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude” or “the change in the nature of sound, thermal, light and electrical phenomena, which is explained by oscillatory motion”, in psychology – “mutual oppression of simultaneous mental processes”, in botany – “variant of competition, unfavorable interaction that arises in the presence of close neighbors of the same or similar species”, in zoology – “inhibition or destruction of animals by animals of their own species”, in genetics it is “a phenomenon by which a chromosomal crossover in one interval decreases the probability that additional crossovers will occur nearby” [21].

In linguistics this term was first used by I. Epshtein and is widely used in linguistic literature due to the works of U. Weinreich. Linguists began using this term to denote a negative effect, an obstacle. Thus, from the linguistic point of view, the term “interference” is used in connection with the study of the problem of contacting languages, to indicate the modifications observed in bilinguals’ speech as the result of the interaction of different language systems.

After analyzing the theoretical sources, we noted that there is no complete unity among linguists in defining the notion of linguistic interference. One group of scholars, considering this concept, focuses only on the negative influence of the native language on the studied language; another includes both positive and negative impacts. Some scientists define this concept quite largely and consider the phenomena of substrate and borrowing in it, while others use a precise definition, referring only to deviance of language norms in speech. Thus, U. Weinreich believes that interference is “cases of deviation in the norms of every language that occurs in bilinguals’ speech as a result of their study of more than one language” [7, P. 22]. E. Haugen defines interference as “a linguistic partial coincidence, in which a language unit becomes an element of two systems simultaneously”, or as “an overlay of two language systems” [18]. V.Yu. Rozentsveih defines interference as “a phenomenon during which a bilingual deviates the rules of the correlation of contacting languages, which are observed in his speech particularly in deviation of the norm” [15, P. 15]. We understand that the scientist sees in his definition the negative influence of one language on the other. V.O. Vynohradov understands interference as the interaction of language systems in terms of multilingualism, in which there is an uncontrolled transfer of certain structures or elements of one language into the other [14, P. 64]. L.I. Barannikova states that interference is “a change in the structure or structure elements of one language under the influence of the other” [3]. R.A. Vafieiev provides the following definition: “pressure, displacement of a foreign system from the system of the native language at the time of their contact with gradual weakening of the degree and quality of pressure” [8]. L.V. Shcherba notes that “during the process of interference a language adaptation of both speaker and listener takes place simultaneously” [20]. Yu.O. Zhluktenko supports L.V. Shcherba’s views and notes that “interference is all changes in the language structure, in meanings, features arising as a result of interaction with the language which is in contact of interlingual connection with it” [12, P. 56]. S.V. Semchynskyi understands interference as “the process of interaction between systems and elements of these systems in contacting languages” [16]. V.I. Bielikov and L.P. Krysin point out that interference is “any influence of one language of a bilingual on the other, as well as the result of this influence”. The scientists also emphasize that “interference is only uncontrolled processes, but not conscious borrowings” [4, P. 20].

Scientific investigation has allowed distinguishing a number of factors that cause interference:

-   structural differences between the mother tongue and the studied language;

-   a program of the mother tongue use in a bilingual’s consciousness;

-   insufficient knowledge of the lexical and grammatical material of the native language and the absence of persistent skills of using the studied language;

-   psychological barrier (fear of contact) [19].

Modern science operates a variety of different classifications of interference. The views of scientists on this issue also vary. This is due to the fact that interference is the object of study of many related sciences, therefore, its classifications are based on its various features (source, area of ​​functioning, recognition degree of differential features of the native language by polylingual speaker, form of interference occurrence, communicative effect of interference, etc) [3]. According to the features mentioned above, the following types of interference are distinguished:

-   within the dichotomy “language – speech” there are language and speech types of interference, assuming that every speech phenomenon belongs to a certain language [2, P. 43];

-   according to the source interference may be interlingual and intralingual. Interlingual interference is a process in which a person studying a foreign language identifies the general peculiarities of his native language with the peculiarities of the studied language. Intralingual interference is connected with territorial dialectal differentiation (dissimilarity of dialect systems in different languages ​​has a greater or lesser degree of differences) [6];

-   scientists also distinguish a communicatively relevant and communicatively irrelevant interference. The first type includes deviations in the rules of the second language, which do not interfere with mutual understanding. The second type involves the presence of significant difficulties in understanding or even excludes it [9]. These two types of interference are more known as explicit and implicit, direct and indirect respectively [15];

-   interference varies in syntagmatic and paradigmatic plans (if we speak about phonetic interference). Syntagmatic factors refer to sounds connected into a certain sequence, that is the speech chain. Paradigmatic factors refer to the relationship between sounds in the model, which may appear at this point of the speech chain [7];

-   depending on the specifics of speech activity, there are expressive (connected with the origin of foreign speech) and the impressive (related to understanding of a foreign language) types of interference [13].

Scientists also distinguish types of interference according to the language levels. Among them there are the classifications of V.V. Alimov (sound, orthographic, grammatical, lexical, semantic, stylistic, intralingual) [1], M.V. Diachkov (lexical, morphological, syntactic) [10], A.Ye. Bokovnia (lexical-semantic, grammatical (morphological), grammatical (syntactic), phonetic) [5].

Considering the issue of grammatical interference, it should be noted that this process involves the complete or partial replacement of the features of grammatical phenomena of one studied language by features of another language under the influence of the mother tongue or another studied language. Grammatical interference is easily predicted by comparing the grammatical phenomena of the studied languages, revealing a similarity and difference with a significant degree of probability. Grammatical phenomena of languages ​​have much in common; this can be observed both at morphological and syntactic levels. So, the study of S.S. Sorokina highlights the syntactic and morphological types of grammatical interference. Syntactic interference, in her opinion, includes a constructive subtype, positional syntax, subtypes of syntactic agreement [17].

Analyzing the causes of grammatical interference, we turned to the work of Yu.O. Zhluktenko, who among them names the identification of words, morphemes and grammatical models of both languages. He provides the following typology of grammatical interference:

-   a change of grammatical relations in one language by analogy with those relations existing in the other language (transfer of grammatical relations from language A to language B or vice versa; elimination of grammatical relations existing in one language owing to their absence in another);

-   change of the grammatical function of a word or morpheme of one language according to the example of the other;

-   extension or narrowing of the grammatical form, model or unit of the given language under the influence of the phenomenon universality of the other language, which is identified [11].

Grammatical interference is the influence of the elements of one language system on the other during languages contact, the result of which can cause both negative and positive effects. The study of grammatical interference, both lexical and phonetic, is based on a contrastive analysis of two contacting languages ​​and the analysis of mistakes in the studied language. Thus, the negative influence of the native language can be studied by comparing and analyzing two languages, one of which is native, and the other is the studied one.

The study of interference, in particular grammatical, is relevant in modern linguistic studies.

 

References:

  • 1. Алимов В.В. Интерференция в переводе (на материале профессионально ориентированной межкультурной коммуникации и перевода в сфере профессиональной коммуникации): Учеб. пособие / В.В. Алимов. – М.: КомКнига, 2005. – 323 с.
  • 2. Баграмова Н.В. Лингводидактические основы обучения второму иностранному языку: учеб. пособие/ Н.В. Баграмова – СПб.: Изд-во РГПУ им. А.И. Герцена, 2005. –221 с.
  • 3. Баранникова Л.И. Проблема интерференции и вопросы взаимодействия языков / Л.И. Баранникова // Вопросы методики преподавания иностранных языков в связи с проблемой языковой интерференции. – Саратов, 1966. – С. 4-23.
  • 4. Беликов В.И. Социолингвистика / В.И. Беликов, Л.П. Крысин – М., 2001. – 439 с.
  • 5. Боковня А.Е. Интерференция при обучении иностранному языку (на примере парадигматической лексико-синтаксической интерференции) и возможные пути ее преодоления в процессе работы над лексикой: Автореф. дисс. канд. пед. наук / А.Е. Боковня. – М., 1995. – 18 с.
  • 6. Бондарко Л.В. О фонетических критериях при определении места слоговой границы / Л.В. Бондарко, Л.П. Павлова // Русский язык за рубежом.–1987. – № 4 – С. 11-20.
  • 7. Вайнрайх У. Одноязычие и многоязычие / У. Вайнрайх // Новое в лингвистике. Вып. 6. – М.: Прогресс, 1972. – С. 25-60.
  • 8. Вафеев P.A. Билингв как носитель двуязычия и билингв языковая личность в культурном пространстве страны / P.A. Вафеев // Экология культуры и образования: Филология, философия, история. – Тюмень: ТГУ, 1997. – С. 146-159.
  • 9. Верещагин Е.М. Понятие интерференции в лингвистической и психологической литературе / Е.М. Верещагин // Ин. яз. в высшей школе. Вып. 4. – М., 1968. – С. 103.
  • 10. Дьячков М.В. Проблемы двуязычия (многоязычия) / М.В. Дьячков. – М.: Институт национальных проблем в МО РФСР, 1992. – 102 с.
  • 11. Жлуктенко Ю.А. Лингвистические аспекты двуязычия / Ю.А. Жлуктенко. – Киев: Вища школа, 1974. – 164с.
  • 12. Жлуктенко О.Ю. Мовні контакти / Ю.О. Жлуктенко. – К.: Вид-во Київ. ун-ту, 1966. – 135 с.
  • 13. Карлинский А.Е. Типология речевой интерференции / А.Е. Карлинский // Зарубежное языкознание и литература. Вып. 2.– Алма-Ата, 1972. –С. 9-16.
  • 14. Лингвистический энциклопедический словарь / гл. ред. В.Н. Ярцева. М., 1990. – 685 с.
  • 15. Розенцвейг В.Ю. Языковые контакты. Лингвистическая проблематика/ В.Ю. Розенцвейг – М.: Наука, 1972. – 80 с.
  • 16. Семчинський С.В. Семантична інтерференція мов / С.В. Семчинський –Київ: Вища школа, 1974. – 256 с.
  • 17. Сорокина С.С. Пути преодоления и предупреждения грамматической интерференции синтаксических подтипов в немецкой речи студентов 1 курса языковых факультетов (на материале подтипа управления): Автореф. диссс. …канд. пед. наук / С. С. Сорокина. – Л., 1971. – 26 с.
  • 18. Хауген У. Языковой контакт / У. Хауген // Новое в лингвистике. Вып. VI. Языковые контакты. – М., 1972. – С. 61-80.
  • 19. Шепель Ю. А. Виды интерференции как следствия двуязычия. Интернет [Электронный ресурс] / Режим доступа: http://www.confcontact.com/2012_03_15/f_shepel.php.
  • 20. Щерба Л.В. О понятии смешения языков / Л.В. Щерба // Избранные работы по языкознанию и фонетике. – Л., 1958. С. 40–53.
  • 21. http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Интерференция.
Comments: 4

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая Коллега! Благодарю Вас сердечно за очень интересный, актуальный и перспективный доклад! Интерференция между языками неизбежна. Но каким образом она проявляется и как рефлектирует на изучаемом иностранном языке, это важный вопрос к изучению. Вы уже убедительно ответили на него в настоящем докладе. Желаю дальнейших успехов! С уважением и сердечностью! Димитрина

Usachenkoi Irina

Уважаемая госпожа Димитрина, благодарю Вас за комментарий! Будучи преподавателем иностранного языка, утверждаю, что интерференция не только неизбежный процесс, но и актуальный вопрос с точки зрения лингвистической науки, преподавания и его методики.

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Ирина, спасибо за Ваш интересный доклад. Безусловно, важно понимать, какие существуют виды интерференции для продуктивного преодоления отрицательного влияния родного языка на процесс овладения иностранным. Как, по-вашему, влияет ли изучаемый язык на родной? Меняется ли стиль мышления? С благодарностью, Татьяна.

Usachenkoi Irina

Уважаемая Татьяна, спасибо за комментарий! Отвечая на Ваш вопрос, скажу, что, несомненно, изучаемый язык влияет на родной, однако не в той степени, как родной влияет на иностраннный. Я рассматриваю интерференцию как "двустороннее движение", но интенсивность движения в этих вдух направлениях разная.
Comments: 4

Hamze Dimitrina

Уважаемая Коллега! Благодарю Вас сердечно за очень интересный, актуальный и перспективный доклад! Интерференция между языками неизбежна. Но каким образом она проявляется и как рефлектирует на изучаемом иностранном языке, это важный вопрос к изучению. Вы уже убедительно ответили на него в настоящем докладе. Желаю дальнейших успехов! С уважением и сердечностью! Димитрина

Usachenkoi Irina

Уважаемая госпожа Димитрина, благодарю Вас за комментарий! Будучи преподавателем иностранного языка, утверждаю, что интерференция не только неизбежный процесс, но и актуальный вопрос с точки зрения лингвистической науки, преподавания и его методики.

Suvorova Tetiana

Уважаемая Ирина, спасибо за Ваш интересный доклад. Безусловно, важно понимать, какие существуют виды интерференции для продуктивного преодоления отрицательного влияния родного языка на процесс овладения иностранным. Как, по-вашему, влияет ли изучаемый язык на родной? Меняется ли стиль мышления? С благодарностью, Татьяна.

Usachenkoi Irina

Уважаемая Татьяна, спасибо за комментарий! Отвечая на Ваш вопрос, скажу, что, несомненно, изучаемый язык влияет на родной, однако не в той степени, как родной влияет на иностраннный. Я рассматриваю интерференцию как "двустороннее движение", но интенсивность движения в этих вдух направлениях разная.
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.