- About project
- Results and Awards
- Affiliate Programs
- International services
THE LITERARY LANGUAGE STANSARTS TEACHING- IS THE CHIEF CONDITION OF CREATION CULTURE OF SPEECH
Dauletbekova Zhanat, Associated Professor
Kazakh-British Technical University
The culture of speech is achieved by teaching the literary language norms. The unity of normative aspects and communicative aspect of culture of word was mentioned in research work of Ualiyev N. as below: “The meaning of culture of speech is in effective learning the grammar, stylistic and orthographical standards of the literary language, also in ability to use transfiguring ways of expression in communication” [1, 6]. It means culture of speech, first of all, covers the literary language standards, then review issues regarding the level of ability to express thoughts. There should be no doubt re to the right formulation of the word as a first aspect of culture of speech.
Language standards is the same as the meaning of right formulation of the word. Language learning starts from learning or words and formulation of right sentences.
The main condition of the word selection was shown in works of Akhmet Baytursynuly: “An accuracy of speech depends on each word, each sentence used. This for should be used right suffics and endings, which change the meaning and form of the word; words should be composed on cases, used in a plural in sentences correctly; sentences should be connected and included into one complex sentence by following rules” [2,48 p.]. The mentioned opinion of A.Baitursynuly regarding to interconnection of language and norm should be used in teaching process. Because literary language norm provides with perfectness of language: first, it obligates to use the passed law of the society and does not allow to deviate from the norm; second, protect the language from primitiveness, does not allow the wanton use of jargons and dialects; third, teaches pupil to correct usage of words. That is why the teaching of literary language norm is the main part of whole education starting from elementary school till graduation. If the practical training only is used in elementary school, the next stages both of: theoretical and practical are used in teaching process. In this stage student knows more re to literary language norms of each linguistic unit. For example, in phonetics, he will learn the law of vowel harmony as the main law of Kazakh language and norm of literary language, so they’ll try to use it correctly as it should be.
The word usage is the main meaning used simultaneously with “speech accuracy”. Because of “the word usage is based on standards and regulations of word usage, word selection and usage principles at all” [3,360 p.]. It’s obligatory for speaker to use correct meaning of words selected for the correctly expression of his (her) thought. So, there is no doubt that the word usage is the main component of language culture.
In case if culture of speech is the correctly usage of words and sentences, following the standards of word usage and norms of literary language as vocabulary, grammar, style, orthoepy, spelling, this conclusion will affect on revealing the consistence of culture of speech from two interconnected components. It means culture of speech, first, covers the literary language norms, second, reviews the issues of skillful practicing level of speaker in learning of the nature of language. Taking into account that the accuracy of speech is the next stage after the word correctness selection, it’s simple to imagine Kazakh language meaning as a unity several of stages. Systemized, completed ways of teaching in accordance with didactic principles show the need to clarify the scope of knowledge in learning the accuracy of speech and beauty of speech.
“Consistency, universal usage, linguistic tradition of language system are inherent to literary language norms [3,72 p.]. Literary language norms are easy to teach as Kazakh language have no difference in whole structure used by all speakers of several regions. It’s very important to teach the language not in a form of other language, meaning to teach “first, paying attention to it’s own “nature”, second, in accordance with the psychology of perception of child [4,5 p.]
Literary language norms can be changed and improved constantly as the language is phenomenon at the stage of development. These kind changes can be re to meaning, structure and component of the word. Two or more vocabularies can be used as per the new words entered and changes done as mentioned. In this case you can face with word used in different forms. It, of course, affects on child’s language used. Therefore, scientists show three levels of language norms:
1-level norm – strict norm – no changes should be done, no other form can be used. (For example: orally шегара (shegara), but in written form шекара (shekara) should be used).
2-level norm – weak norm – no prohibition on it’s usage in forms. (For example ма?р?м (makhrum) as махр?м (makhrum), ра?мет (rakhmet) as рахмет (rahmet) are used both).
3-level norm – changable norm – no prohibition on changes to be done to ancient words in usage [5,77 p.]. By our opinion, first two of norms are can be called norm and follow the rules of norm, but the last one not. Because of the main criteria of norm is being constant. That’s for the third level can not be the level of norm as this criteria is not acceptable for it and it make the language very primitive.
Conservation of regulatory quality characteristics of culture of speech is closely related to determination of the meaning and proper use of it. It means the importance of the rule of vocabulary – lexis. That is for the language learning starts from language teaching by preservation of rules and norms in schools. The correct usage of words helps to develop the speech accuracy and a clear expression of thoughts simultaneously.
An accuracy speech shows the responsibility on the clear expression of thoughts and on whole conversation. Because of the accuracy speech is based on the respect to language. The uncleanness of thought leads to impure language. That is why Akhmet Baitursynuly mentioned: “the accuracy of speech and cleanness of language depends on not using of foreign words in other languages and the cleanness of language leads to intelligibility of the language, which is easy to understand, which not raise the doubt in the mind [2,180 p.].
The preservation of speech accuracy can be reviewed in two cases. First, usage of foreign word in other language; second, the usage of unnecessary words, adverbs and other not reliable combination of words. It is the fact that there is no language without foreign words included from other languages. The problem is in correct usage of them. Belinskii V.G. said re to accuracy and richness of speech: “Foreign words have been included in each era of Russian Language: so on in our time. This will never stop: the foreign thought born in foreign country brings with new foreign word to us.. But the language ca not be change by individual only. Because each language has it’s own guard named innate spirit, nature and wisdom. That is why set of foreign words are removed from use. The same is for foreign words in Russian. It also follows this rule: some of them can be used, some removed. Anyway the wrong Russian word used to call the name of foreign thought expressed is not better the foreign word included, it’s worse” [6,127 p.]. Kazakh language is facing the same situation. Big changes are being done in lexical resource re to globalization. “Uncleanness of language” used in several advertisements, in media certainly affects on child’s mind. It’s easy to foresee how “uncleanness of language” can have an effect on our native language. It happens so that foreign words crowd out the words used in everyday life. “Language like river – with water streams of other rivers, springs, rain and mud also”. Therefore we have to teach to choice words correctly as it takes place the wrong tendency like usage of foreign words, elements of other languages more often than our native.
This phenomenon negatively affects on the cultural significance of speech and the ability of pupil to think. The teaching of culture of speech as a subject is the way to protect a new generation from this kind of “disorderly”.
The dialects used in sentence are negatively affects on cleanness of language. Not only it’s affect on cleanness of language, also “violation on correctness of the word” was shown by Scientist Sarybayev Sh. mentioned [7,98 p.]. Because the dialect used in one region only is not understandable for all speakers of other regions. In this case the organization of trainings showing insignificance of dialects, slang and introductory words in lexical resource is reliable. Therefore there are evidences can be shown like ancient words and wise words of our contemporaries. It’s advantageous to students to make his own conclusions of analyses done to speech of other people in research works. In this kind of research works should be selected several ages (old people, intelligent, teachers, classmates, pupil and etc.) to make a conclusion as per whole society. It’ll be a best practice for child to know the essence of deficiency. The important role of educating and training will take place if it’ll be organized the special measures for the accuracy of the speech by child himself in all places, not only in classes.
You can see the tendency of internal classification of language norms in scientific works of our days. This will positively affect on development of culture of speech. For example, scientist Atashev S. showed the following language norms re to system of internal structure of the language:
- Correct pronunciation of sounds (phonological-diction);
- Correct use of strength of voice, intonation and timbre (intonologolical -prosodic);
- Accent and it’s types (accentological);
- to write letters correctly (font-calligraphy);
- to follow norms as per culture of speech (complicacy);
- to use the ways to show the richness of language as: transform, refine, choice of words and etc (figuratively-atheistical);
- to uphold traditional values (communicative-ethnic);
- to regulate the system of though value, meaning structure and it’s expression in speech (informative-communicative, context) [8,56 p.].
All mentioned can be used as universal system in language learning. Because of all of them are the main components of culture of speech. It’s very important to know all requirements, and to write, to talk re to these requirements as they will help to explore the world of language.
In conclusion, speaker should know the meaning of suffics and endings, the meaning of stric and weak norms used as the word is changed per them, the places of words in sentences and know how to change them for impressive expression of thoughts as these are the main parts of learning of culture of speech. These works will be investigated more specifically in learning of style of speech and types of it. The main goal is the learning of nature of language by identifying the difference between scientific language and household language styles understanding and by paying more attention for it.
1 . У?лиев Н. С?з м?дениеті. -Алматы: Мектеп, 1984. -119 б./ Ualiyev N. The culture of speech. –Almaty: Mektep, 1984. – 119p.
2 . Байт?рсын?лы А. Бес томды? шы?армалар жина?ы. -Алматы: Алаш, 2003. -1-том - 408 б./Baitursynuly A. Five-volume collection of works. –Almaty, Alash, 2003 – 1part-408p
3 . ?аза? тілі. Энциклопедия. - Алматы: ?аза?стан даму институты, 1998. -509 б./ Kazakh language. Encyclopedia. –Almaty: Kazakhstan Development Institute, 1998, -509p
4 . Рахметова С. ?аза? тілін о?ыту методикасы. -Алматы: Рауан, 1991.- 184 б. / Rakhmetova S. Methodology of Kazakh language teaching. –Almaty, Rauan, 1991-184p
5 . Сызды? Р. С?з саралау м?дениеті // С?з ?нері. -Алматы, 1978. -18-24 б./ Syzdykh R. The culture of word selection//Word Art, - Almaty, 1978,-18-24p
6 . Белинский В.Г. Та?дамалы шы?армалары. -Алматы: ?аза?ты? біріккен мемлекет баспасы,1948.1-кітап. - 215 б.-Belinskii V.G. Selected works.-Almaty, Amalgamated government printing office in Kazakhstan, 1948, 1Book, -215p.
7 . Сарыбаев Ш. К?ркем ?дебиет тіліндегі жергілікті ерекшеліктер// Жазушы ж?не с?з м?дениеті. -Алматы, 1983. -131-138 б./Sarybayeva Sh. Local features of fiction// Writer and culture of speech.-Almaty, 1983,-131-138p
8 . Аташев С. ?аза? тілі ?андай тіл немесе тілімізді? ?арым-?атынасты? за?дылы?тары // ?аза? тілі мен ?дебиеті. -1996.- №1-54-59 б./Atashev S. That is the Kazakh language or patterns of language use//Kazakh language and literature, 1996.- 1-54-59 p.