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SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TRADITIONAL ORNAMENTS IN CRIMEA-TATARIAN DECORATIVE-APPLIED ARTS

SYMBOLIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TRADITIONAL ORNAMENTS IN CRIMEA-TATARIAN DECORATIVE-APPLIED ARTS
Valeriya Frandgulo, postgraduate student

Lviv National Academy of Arts, Ukraine

Conference participant

The article deals with the analysis of symbolic significance of traditional ornaments in crimea-tatarian decorative-applied art.

Keywords: Ornament, art, culture, arts and crafts, Crimean Tatar ornament, composition, symbolism.

 

Formulation of the problem. The culture of any nation determines its spiritual uniqueness. She reveals his creative powers and abilities, while being the property of all mankind. The people who have kept in their art, namely, in their ornament, their traditions, culture, are eternal. The process of revival of folk traditions is an important part in the contemporary fine art of the Crimean Tatars.

At present, the revival of the national cultural heritage becomes of particular importance inextricably linked with the problem of expression of the people in the modern world. The analysis of the elements of the ornament, which represents the whole system of symbols, allows us to trace the genetic links of the Crimean Tatars with different ethnic groups in the arts. Popularization and preservation of the culture of the Crimean Tatar people.

The purpose of the article. To analyze sources of folk art of the Crimean Tatars and to study symbolism in the Crimean-Tatar ornament.

Presenting main material. The relevance of the consideration of creativity of the Crimean Tatar people is dictated by the fact that for many decades he was deprived of the opportunity to study native culture and traditions of folk art. In the contemporary art of the Crimean Tatars, the influence of Uzbek and Ukrainian cultures can be traced to long-term residence after deportation in various cities in Uzbekistan and in Ukraine [8, pp. 18-26].The visual interpretation of motifs acquires Central Asian flavor, a new interpretation of motifs is associated with the influence of Slavic art.

The modern fine art of the Crimean Tatars after half a century of exile begins with a clean sheet. Young artists have the opportunity to fully disclose their skills through the expression of their worldview, not trampled by ancient traditions, as Muslim religion forbade depicting people created by the Almighty animals. In this regard, the old masters transferred their feelings, emotions in the ornament. In the works of the Crimean Tatars, the ornament is an entire world in which each element has its symbolic meaning. Modern masters are trying to restore on the basis of ancient traditions the Crimean style through the interpretation and stylization of ethnic motifs.

The art language of the ornament is shaped. Performing the task of decorative value, it is a means of expressing the people's world outlook. Today, folklore becomes relevant, it fits organically into the design of the interior, the design of clothing, with national embroidery and weaving, is reflected in the decorative shaping of hand-painted dishes, where modern application is skillful, based on national traditions, culture and art, its traditional symbolism [ 6, P.21-47].

The significance of the symbols of the Crimean Tatars is not much different from other peoples, because all peoples unite love for the Motherland, the desire to preserve peace on earth, interest in prosperity and the continuation of one's kind, giving importance to mother and father. The correct understanding of the symbol as a sign depends on the meaning, the interpretation of the work of art, even historical and political significance. Each element, the sign of the Crimean Tatar ornament carried a semantic load and had its name, the things "talked" about their master, carried in themselves the complete information about his worldview, family status, marital status [2, P.161-164]. The ornamental elements served as a magical remedy for natural elements, various kinds of disasters, illnesses, evil eye, evil demons and spirits [1, P.4-8]. Unfortunately, the language of characters gradually became ashamed as their names.

Masters-Applicants successfully use in the various compositions the most popular motive of the semantic meaning of the "tree of life" or "vazon", which symbolize the family's genus and its continuation. In the Crimean Tatar ornament, the "tree of life" is associated with the life of the whole family, its well-being, the wishes of the man of physical, manpower, abundance, power, fertility, the continuation of the family. The image of the family tree is constructed in a symmetrical composition, in which the center contains a man's beginning (a symbol of a cypress), on the edges of the female (the image of a pomegranate) and children's marks, which defined it as a generic emblem - an amulet, a sign of peace, well-being, family unity and prosperity. [7, P.35-43]. "The Tree of Life" as a figurative element is often used in the paintings of fabrics, ceramics, embroideries of national costumes and decorative items of interiors [5, P.883-887].

In Muslim art, the image of a person used an allegory of colors. Rose - a human symbol in the bloom of forces in his life and spiritual incarnation - a symbol of mother-woman as a source of warmth and love, kindness and mercy. Tulip - symbolizing the "declaration in love" in the ornaments of the Crimean Tatars denote a young boy. Creating a circle around a rose, tulips symbolize the care and protection of a mother-in-law. The entire ornament rests on a triangle, which denotes the ground, the basis of existence.

Ornament "Egri gave" - acurved branch littered with many flowers and fruits, symbolizing the Crimean Tatar art of paradise garden, endless flowering, eternal harmony and perfection. The signs of the composition correspond to three main stages in the life of a woman - youth, maturity, old age, forming a circle (time wheel). The rhythm of small elements - symbolizes "Bereket", a daily work that brings spiritual, physical and material well-being. In the modern ethnic costume, motifs of flowers, fruits, paradise gardens have been found in their place, taking into account their symbolic context.

The original story is the image of sailing ships on the background of paradise gardens. Ships are depicted in the form of a boat with a flowering paradise garden with a view of the domes of the eastern Khan's palaces and mosques [3, P.78]. The forms of the ships are diverse in the form of an inverted crescent, the letters "P", the rocker. In all decorative compositions, the presence of blooming flowers, smooth cypresses, and paradise apples grows; in the form of a shamrock, the presence of the bird of the Movement (Syrin - the Slavs) is depicted. Tulip - a symbol of man, men, young men - is inside the image of the temple-mosque, the symbol of worship and obedience to Allah, located in turn on the ship. A boat is a traffic sign, a way. On the right and on the left side, the fruits and stems with small elements, which speak about everyday cares that accompany a person in his life [4, P.883-887]. Above the branch there are two angels that record the human act.

The paradise is depicted by modern masters in the form of a city located under a lush fruit tree (the almond element "Badem" is used, "pear tree"), which resembles the old Crimea. The image of the city with its colorful domes, high minarets, paradise trees, flowers, animals and birds, the heavens of tombstones and crescents ("ai") became a favorite part of the decorative composition, it can be seen in works executed in the technique of ceramics, appliqués, embroidery and Tapestry [8, P.18-26]. In the composition among the houses are majestic minarets, a distinctive feature of Islamic architecture, an integral part of the cities and the history of the peninsula. The use of warm colors and gentle plant ornament transfers the mood of joy and kindness.

The family is one of the most important cells of society, children are born here, values ​​are formed, the transfer of experience, learning takes place. Particular joy is brought by young families who are just beginning to blossom and understand the happiness of family life. The central symbol of the composition is the tulip (a symbol of a young man). Inside the tulip, a rose is depicted - a woman's sign [7, P.35-43]. Such a combination of images embodies the unity of the boy and girl clinging to the bands of love. At the base of the composition is a boat, a symbol of the path and movement. This sign has the desire to overcome obstacles to life and the preservation of family values ​​throughout life. Fruits - flowers that grow from the central sign, depicted ripe, open, generously distribute their content for the benefit of prosperity and well-being [9, P.103].

Conclusions.

Based on the foregoing, one can say that the modern Crimean Tatar ornament is diverse, rich in drawing, technique and technology of execution. Has a wide national color scheme, system-forming elements and types of ornamentation, principles of grouping of the figurative form.

Crimea's culture is the property of not only the Crimeans, but the whole world. Therefore, the preservation and continuation of an invaluable heritage is one of the ways that leads to harmony, mutual understanding between peoples, the mutual enrichment of cultures, the solution of many problems, to be acutely to this day.

 

References:

  • 1. Abdulganieva M. Revival of Origins / M. Abdulganieva -Avdet - 2010. - P.4-8.
  • 2. Bessarabova EV Using national components in designing a modern costume / E.V. Bessarabova - Journal "Global Scientific Potential". - 2014 - No. 12 (45). - P.161-164.
  • 3. Kuftin B.A. On the Material Culture of the Tatars: the South Bank. Field Notebook / B. A. Kuftin. - Moscow: MAE, 1924. - P.78.
  • 4. Selemetova A. The Significance of the Symbolism in the Crimean Tatar Ornament / A. Selmetova - Young Scientist # 6. - 2016 - P.883-887.
  • 5. Spasskaya E. Yu. Tatar embroidery of the old Krym district: based on the materials of A. M. Petrova / E. Yu. Spasskaya - Izvestiya of the Eastern faculty of the Azerbaijan state. Un-them them. VI Lenin. Sir: Oriental studies. - 1926. - Vol.1 - P.21-47.
  • 6. Spasskaya E. Starokryma patterns / E. Spasskaya - News of the Society for the Survey and Study of Azerbaijan. Baku - 1926. - P.35-43.
  • 7. Churlou M. Crimean Tatar carpet. Past, present, future ...: [About the history of weaving of the Crimean Tatars] / M. Churlu - Ethnography of the Crimea of ​​the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. And modern ethno-cultural processes. Materials and research. - 2002. - P.18-26.
  • 8. Chepurin P. Ya. Ornamental sewing of the Crimea. / P.Ya.Chepurina - M.L. - 1938. - P.29.
  • 9. Chepurin P. Ya. Tatar embroidery / P.Ya.Chepurina - M.L., "Art" - 1935. - No. 2. - P.103.
Comments: 5

Аrefyeva Svetlana

Уважаемый автор! Общеизвестная семантика орнаментов, могла бы дополниться визуальным рядом их использования в предметно-бытовой среде для определения характерных особенностей именно крымских татар. Надеемся, что в дальнейшем вы уделите внимание использованию орнаментов в современном мире искусства (по принципу аналогов, намеков или креативного воспроизведения). Удачи!

Mosendz Oksana

В работе проведен тщательный анализ символики и истоков крымско-татарского орнамента. Удачи в дальнейшем углублении в тему

Lugovaya Tatyana Anatolievna

Уважаемый автор! Тема Вашего доклада интересна, актуальна, но не нова в постановке проблемы. Поэтому для дальнейшего исследования Вам было бы полезно более четко прописать, что уже наработано другими учеными (анализ историографии) и что нового предлагаете Вы. С наилучшими пожеланиями, Татьяна Луговая

Svetlana Pavlikova

Interesting: All this is the oldest signs and symbols that ancestors passed on information.

Makarova Tatyana Lvovna

Добрый день. Видно начало работы. Однако без иллюстраций выводов, схем, таблиц сложновато визуально представить научный результат, несмотря на знание истории искусств и сотрудничество с Казанью.
Comments: 5

Аrefyeva Svetlana

Уважаемый автор! Общеизвестная семантика орнаментов, могла бы дополниться визуальным рядом их использования в предметно-бытовой среде для определения характерных особенностей именно крымских татар. Надеемся, что в дальнейшем вы уделите внимание использованию орнаментов в современном мире искусства (по принципу аналогов, намеков или креативного воспроизведения). Удачи!

Mosendz Oksana

В работе проведен тщательный анализ символики и истоков крымско-татарского орнамента. Удачи в дальнейшем углублении в тему

Lugovaya Tatyana Anatolievna

Уважаемый автор! Тема Вашего доклада интересна, актуальна, но не нова в постановке проблемы. Поэтому для дальнейшего исследования Вам было бы полезно более четко прописать, что уже наработано другими учеными (анализ историографии) и что нового предлагаете Вы. С наилучшими пожеланиями, Татьяна Луговая

Svetlana Pavlikova

Interesting: All this is the oldest signs and symbols that ancestors passed on information.

Makarova Tatyana Lvovna

Добрый день. Видно начало работы. Однако без иллюстраций выводов, схем, таблиц сложновато визуально представить научный результат, несмотря на знание истории искусств и сотрудничество с Казанью.
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