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THE MODEL OF TRAINING YOUNG TEACHERS TO THE FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
Saya Baisultanova, Lecturer in English
KazNPU named afterAbai
The current status of the theory of learning a foreign language and the obtained knowledge makes it necessary once again to return to the competence of communicative teaching. At the turn of the century has changed the sociocultural context of learning foreign languages in Kazakhstan. Greatly increased their educational and self-education functions in schools and universities, professional significance in the labor market as a whole, resulting in the enhancement of motivation to learn languages of international communication. Communicative-based learning is also becoming a tool of social and cultural education. Communicative-based learning of foreign language means to form a school student’s communicative competence of language, conversation and practical, social, linguistic and intellectual, when the student is ready to use language as an implement of discourse activity. The purpose of the article is to consider the role of communicative competence in the XXI century and develop the model of training future teachers of English to the formation of communicative competence at the secondary school.
Keywords: communicative competence, model of training future teachers at the university, secondary school students
The essence of competence-based approach - in the process of training a person must get very specific practice-oriented knowledge and develop specific socially and professionally important qualities, possessing which will be successful in life.
Particular importance is the training of future teachers to the formation of communicative competence at secondary school based on English lessons.
Therefore, Kazakhstani system of Education needs innovative methods of training teachers of English as a Foreign Language.
The above mentioned was equally interesting for me the preparation of future teachers' pedagogical universities of Great Britain.
So for the essential experience of international cooperation was in the form of scientific training thanks to the Program “Bolashak” International Scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The program “Research study in Humanity” at the University of Buckingham assisted to gain excellent experience on training teachers of English as a Foreign Language. It was a good chance to study on leading practices. Attending the lectures of British colleagues the improved lecturers were: Mrs. Felicity Robert-Holmes – “Interpersonal Communication”, Doctor Katherine Finlay – “Individual Differences”, Ms. Caroline Cushen – “TEFL skills” and , Jo Gregory – English through Culture Studies and Claire Stulteins – Translation Skills and Methods, Ms Katherine Damon – Mass Communication, Mr.Gerry Loftus – Teaching Academic English.
The scientific [1.15], educational and technological prerequisites [2.215] for the development of communicative competence under the comparative analysis of the educational process in two countries led to the following problems:
- To develop students’ awareness of important aspects of communication used in interpersonal situations particularly in educational process;
- To familiarize students with fundamental communicative competence on EFL teaching skills;
- To enable students to evaluate materials and language test for suitability to secondary school of applications
- To provide opportunities for students to train to the formation of communicative competence on EFL lessons appropriate to particular students groups;
The communicative approach is based on the fact that a successful mastery of communication skills, future teachers must master not only the linguistic forms, but they must have formed an idea of how to use them in real communication with the students.
Possession of the listed skills, ability to establish contact with other people and to maintain it has been determined by several researchers. (Michael Byram Clevedon, J.M. Zhukov, L.A Petrovskii, P.V Rastyannikov).
The particular importance is the development communicative competence of of future professionals of the future teachers and school students. What is the meaning associated with the notion of what is meant by the formation of communicative competence in the XXI century?
The concept of communicative competence has seen many changes in ideas. We may divide the trends of the this concept in the last 45 years into 4 phases.
Phase 1 – it refers to linguistic competence, especially in grammar (D.Hymes, N.Chomsky, 1966). It considers the language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and social knowledge appropriately.
Phase 2 – consists of three components: grammatical competence: words and rules, sociolinguistic competence: appropriateness, strategic competence: appropriate use of communication strategies.(Canale and Swain, 1980)
Phase 3 – includes organizational competence, which consists both grammatical and discourse (or textual) competence, and "pragmatic competence," which includes both sociolinguistic and "illocutionary" competence (Bachman ,1990).
Phase 4 – Emerita Banados, Kristi Jauregi add into the concept of communicative competence: strategic, linguistic, discourse, pragmatic, intercultural competence.(2009)[3.37].
However, if we talk about the substantive content of the communicative competence of future teachers and secondary school students, the academic subject must be designed not as a sign system plus efforts to make it their own, but as a subject of learning.
One of the principal tasks of the teacher in forming communicative competence of secondary school students is the organization of an environment in which students acquire skills that match the high level of communication.
Ability to communicate include:
1) the desire to make contact with the students;
2) the ability to organize communication, including the ability to listen to the interlocutor, the ability to emotionally empathize, to show empathy, the ability to resolve conflicts;
3) knowledge of rules and regulations to be followed when dealing with the students.
According to Jack C.Richards “communicative competence in communicative language teaching includes the following aspects of language knowledge:
- knowing how to produce and understand different types texts (e.g. narratives, reports, interviews, conversations)
- maintain how to maintain communication despite having limitations in one’s language knowledge (e.g. through using different kinds of communication strategies) ”.[4.3]
Also, we shouldn't forget that the XXI century secondary school students are mostly interested in web technology and the innovative role of English Language Teaching has changed where the teacher of English language has to start working with technology using web 2.0 tools[5.303].
So, communicative competence of future English Teachers considers not only the ability to carry out speech activity which means the language is spoken, properly use the system language, also it covers the web technology standards and choose communicative behavior in accordance with the goals and the situation of communication within a particular sphere of activities.
How the Web 2.0 technology tools affect on secondary school students in communication?
- modern, innovative, motivate;
- develops learning skills in English lesson with the tools of web 2.0 technology such as "You Tube", Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts;
- Creates teachers' and students 'collaboration (interact with peers, experts and other audiences);
- Expands the learning process beyond the classroom;
Therefore we need to engage today's students,' which means involving what is important to them, to train them for their prospect, especially to create skills in communication. The main three skills are important for the secondary school students to focus more on the 21 century. They are:
• Life and career skills
• Learning and innovation skill
• Information, media and technology skills.
The results of theoretical analysis, the study of literature method analysis allowed to make a hypothesized model of training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence in senior pupils.
For the development of the model for teacher preparation to the formation of communicative competence, we adhere to the following definition. The model refers to visualize implemented system, which displays the object of research and study gives new information about this property.
In the research model we can separate individual components, to establish the relationship, the each relationship between the structural components, to identify the conditions for implementing.
The model of training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence is preceded from communicative language teaching approach.
Communicative approached teaching provides a basis to describe the model of training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence means of the following blocks: the target, content, process and criterion-result.
Target block model of training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence of secondary school students includes improving the quality of future teachers to the formation of communicative competence in communicative approach teaching with the help of web technology.
The objective of the model is instantiated a number of conditions:
• formation of the students a holistic view in communication of senior pupils at secondary school in the pedagogical process
• increase knowledge of communicative competence of senior pupils at secondary school
• improvement of skills to plan and organize training activities with senior pupils at secondary school
• development of communicative skills with modern technology in teaching English to senior pupils at secondary school.
The next component of the model of training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence is substantial unit that includes an interdisciplinary theoretical and practical training for students. It results to motivational-adaptive, cognitive, pragmatic, imaginative formation. Each of these components describes:
- Adaptive motivational — a self-adaptive relationship material and immaterial stimuli which aim at providing quality and high performance communication in the pedagogical process senior pupils at secondary school
- Cognitive training based on cognitive abilities of the student. To cognitive abilities include: logic and emotion-type ability, meaningful and reflexive vision, the ability to ask questions, predict the future, formulate hypotheses, draw conclusions, etc.
- Pragmatic involves "web technology training that significantly enhance the intellectual component of a modern society. Searching psychological and pedagogical conditions for transition to developmental, challenging, playful, intensifies;
- Imaginative readiness describes the creation of fundamentally new ideas methodologies of teaching English in high school to improve their communication skills in the pedagogical process.
The next component of the model is the technological training stages. It consists of three main divisions. Such as: specialized oriented, academic analysis, competently innovative. It is necessary to use some forms and methods of educational work in preparing future teachers to the formation of communicative competence. The forms are: lectures, seminars, tutorials, pedagogical practice, methods: explanatory and illustrative, reproductive, partial research, exploit modern technology, use of authentic materials and presentations.
The last criterion-effective component of the model represents a synthesis of selected criteria: a) young teachers’ linguistic knowledge, b) their communicative skills with secondary school’s senior pupils, c) ability to use the authentic materials with modern technologies for their teaching effectiveness, d) their teaching results, i.e. secondary school students’ formed communicative competence) allows to determine the future teachers’ readiness to the formation of secondary school students’ communicative competence: low, intermediate, advanced.
Nowadays, the idea of competence-based approach indicated clearly enough formulated, its main provisions and characterized by the transition from the stage of self-determination to the stage of implementation.
The world of modern technology is developing fast, for example the “change of Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 allows many people to be creative with digital technologies” and becoming the important part of the youth life.
If we talk about the training future teachers to the formation of communicative competence of senior students at secondary school, it must be integrated the use of technology into their courses, without hesitations in using the syllabus and course book.
Thus, the hypothesized model implied, preparation of future teachers in the formation of communicative competence is a prerequisite for successful future for the individual teachers in the pedagogical process with senior students at secondary school.
1. Sandra J. Savignon. Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley c1983 xiii, 322 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. book
2. Some aspects of communicative competence and their implications for language acquisition
Ton van der Geest
Assen : Van Gorcum 1975, 263 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. book
3. Competence in communication : a multidisciplinary approach
Bostrom, Robert N. Robert N Bostrom
Beverly Hills, Calif : Sage Publications c1984, 271 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. book
4. Communicative Language Teaching Today, Jack C.Richards, p.47
5. Materials development in Language Teaching
Brian Tomilson, Cambridge University Press,1998, 2011,445p.