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INTEGRATION PROCESSES IN THE MARKET INNOVATIVE-TRANSFORMABLE ECONOMY
Galieva Gulnaz, сandidate of economics, lecturer
Lomonosov Moscow State University
It is necessary to continue the work on the organization of the state support of the programs of the industrial parks development directed to the prompt growth of the IT goods and services production in Russia. During the examination of the problem it was revealed that the government support of Russian companies is also necessary when they enter the world market. It was summarized that the state should take an active part in the formation of the investments mobilization mechanisms (including foreign ones).
Currently several factors favouring the development of the high-tech business have met together in Russia. We can refer the following to these facts: increased creditworthiness of the banks, global spreading of computer networks on the basis of IT, opportunity to invest the introduction of the new scientific projects in the production sphere using all the IT areas which provide the interconnection of different production areas. Examining the modernization of the system of the economic growth factors we draw a conclusion that the dynamics and the quality of the economic growth more and more depend on technological shifts on the basis of the innovations.
The economy modernization in the country in whole should be carried out on the basis of innovations, priority development of the science intensive sectors, abrupt volume increase of the high-technological production output, decrease of the work intensiveness, material intensiveness and power intensiveness of the production. So, it is necessary to: speed up the technological progress, reduce product and services life cycle and particularly reduce the researches, development and IT implementation period.
Thereby, the IT itself provide economic growth only partially, but the economy development in the spirit of the age is impossible without its usage. Nowadays, it is possible to state that the new economy, based on the IT achievements is real. It changes the aspect of the industry and service sphere, changes the nature of the labor. A person is removed from the direct production process. The function of its control and management becomes characteristic for him. During the examination of the innovative economy it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that it, one the one hand, causes the emergence of absolutely new sectors, and on the other hand, it transforms and modifies the traditional ones drastically.
The innovative economy is based on the knowledge, that is the fundamental difference from the industrial economy. It means that the basic capital for any economic structure is the intellectual property, “know-how” instead of the material assets and traditional resources and that fact indicates that the material basis of capital transforms into the intellectual one. Inventions and innovations provide the biggest profit. Technological design and economic processes organization and absolutely new ideas are equally important. In the new economy the companies offering high-tech products on the basis of the exclusive designs become the leaders. Non-randomly the trans-national corporations started a real brain and ideas hunting. Notices about the new competitions, bonuses and grants appear almost every day. The largest corporations invest into the researches the sums of money which can be compared with the budgets of some countries. New sectors of economy appear, these are online entertainment industry, personalized information support, remote technical maintenance and training, various business-services, outsourcing. We can see the birth of the new middle class: informational mediators (people who organize the movement of the data, information and knowledge streams) occupy the place of the traditional mediators. The borders between the goods and services, between traditional and “virtual” goods are being erased. The products of the nearest future are “broadened products”, including goods, services and intellectual component.
Information society leads to the revision of the basic economic postulates. According to the majority of the economic theories the profit of any economic structure is considered to be zero in the long-term perspective. The creation of the structure itself demands investments and at the end of its life it starts to yield losses. Thereby, the profit got in the prosperity stage is taken as equal to the investments and losses. In the “pre-informational” society the zero economic profit was considered to be a successful strategy. At the moment, a possibility of transition to the positive economic profit appears, as the information and human intellect can be considered as a redundant and unlimited resource. Russia has a huge intellectual and technological potential. Japanese firms buy Russian neurochips and the experimental models of the new military equipment take the lead over the western analogs for 5-10 years. The amount of the total means turnover in the sector connected with the information resources usage has a macroeconomic importance and makes up 5% of GDP. The scheme of the increase of basic capital returns during the adoption of the information technologies (see picture 1).
In the innovative economics, especially at the initial level it is the state that becomes the biggest investors of the high-tech sectors and infrastructure: the plans of the Information society are not realizable without huge investments in the telecommunication sector, the development of the broadband networks of the data transfer, computerization and the Internet authorization of all the state, educational, cultural, medical and other organizations. And these investments are made for the benefit of the population living standard increase.
When the information is kept in people’s minds only, it is not pulled into the turnover and it is useless for the organization. The aim of the new management is to put together (rationally and economically) those people who have the knowledge with those people who search for it.
The basic function of the knowledge and information management is its distribution in the organization so that every worker or every working group could use it effectively in the decision making process. Knowledge management is an effective transfer of knowledge and information. Knowledge management is the organization of its combined usage. Knowledge management is giving the information to the worker in the “easy-to-apprehend” form. Knowledge management is the decision making on the basis of the available information. Knowledge management is the effectiveness control of its usage and the assessment of the quality and quantity of the corporate intellectual capital.
Network structure is the way to the economics globalization. Information society not only changes the traditional structure of the economics, also the “new enterprise” appears. The principle of the vertical integration of companies changes into the new forms and models of the economic activity organization. The network distributed structure becomes the leading one. The new economics is an “oversaturated solution” of companies which specialize in high-professional realization of one business process and which have more intellectual capital in its niche. The nucleus-organization appears and the community (a chain of specialized organizations united around the process of goods and services creation and delivery to the concrete consumer) is immediately crystallized. Such kind of structure will initially be transnational and global: interaction of the network companies occurring in the electronic environment doesn’t know what the limits are.
Economics based on knowledge will insistently demand such specification. Outsourcing will acquire further spreading. Desire for the expenses reduction and the necessity of concentration of profile data, information and knowledge in the organization will become the economic basis of it. The following actions can reduce the expenses: exclusion of non-specialized workers from the personnel, the salary fund and the taxes decrease; costs of the jobsites maintenance and administrative expenses decrease, unsecured risks connected with poor qualification of the non-specialized workers minimize. Concentration of the core information in the organization also reduces the expenses, both direct and indirect ones: it makes the search easier, reduces the costs of the access distribution and high safety of the accounting zone and etc.
Outsourcing allows improving the specialization of all the market participants. Any firm or organization has an opportunity to concentrate on its basic business process: on the production of the high-tech broadened products to the individual customer orders, on the knowledge production, on the production of new ideas which form the basis for new sectors. Outsourcing is very popular in many Russian firms nowadays. Its basic spheres are: accounting, corporative information system maintenance, websites support, marketing researches, handling and systematization of the input information, consulting service. Strategic planning, PR, marketing, legal maintenance of the firm activity are next in the queue.
In the first decade of the 21st century the analytics predict an avalanche-like growth of the specialized enterprises quantity which will deal with a single business process. As soon as the supply on the market will exceed the demand, the opportunity to choose appears and that will cause the qualitative substantiveness of the outsourcing. The bigger the organization is, the sooner it is necessary to get rid of all the non-specialized structures. The gain is in the manageability improvement and the costs decrease. The outsourcing gives an opportunity to charge the professionals whose corporative knowledge are focused in a concrete sector with the realization of certain business processes, and it allows the company increasing its intellectual capital in the key activity sphere. Famous industrial giants, such as General Motors, Ford and DaimlerChrysler which created the general electronic system of components purchase are taking this path nowadays.
Competitive advantage in the innovative economics will be defined by the availability of the unique goods. Products, technologies, ideas, models of business process organization, consumers will become the goods. Time becomes one of the most important competition factors. In this connection, the stability of the company position depends on the maximum shortening of the period since the idea emerges till the time when the good is adopted to the market during the simultaneous increase of the labor productivity, increase of the production flexibility and decrease of all kinds of costs.
The key difference of the innovative economy is in the content of the innovations and in its narrow orientation to the needs of a concrete consumer. In the innovative economics the high temp of changes dictates first of all the demand of ideas. The idea itself should be local to the limit (a concrete technology, service, management model) to provide the leadership. The global thinking means planning of its own exclusive good adoption (of an idea, a product or a service) in the majority of sectors, regions and processes. Global standards are formed in the innovative economics. Technologies and processes become universal. Convergence becomes the leading tendency. That is why the local exclusive decisions are spreading so fast.
The boundaries between the companies are erased in the innovative economics. In fact every good unites all the companies equipped with its development, production, delivery and maintenance into a single integrated delivery chain. The introduction of a technological or an economical innovation in any link automatically leads to its spreading to the whole chain. All these changes involve the change of the investors’ behavior. They used to assess the profitability of a company, but now they give the priority to the possession of the unique technologies or of the hard-to-reproduce business-models.
The second component of the investment attractiveness of a company is in the considerable quantity of the devoted consumers and in the opportunity of the rapid growth of its quantity. The new investment paradigm is now being checked on the Internet-companies which do their business in the virtual space only. Money will be also invested in the projects which involve maximum audience and which are concentrated on the satisfaction of various audience needs at the expense of the variety of the offered products and services. When the business has been regulated, the company can master a new niche with minimal expenses. The e-environment becomes the most important factor of the market expansion. As there will be more companies which would transfer their business processes to the Internet, this model of investment behavior will become predominant. And in the fight for the involvement of the finance resources it is the one who has a bigger intellectual capital is going to win (not the one who is bigger and who has more financial resources). Consequently, the competition model will also change: micro-companies which can generate the innovations will be able to compete with huge corporations on equal terms. Now they will be able to sell the goods which are in demand to any consumer anywhere at any time.
From the economic point of view, the government control of the priority areas should have a considerable external effect, improving the economic environment both for the development of the given areas and for the business activity growth in a wide complex of fields. In other words, it should create widening impulse of growth of the demand and business activity.
From the industrial point of view, the government stimulation should lead to the growth of competitiveness of certain productions and since a certain moment they go to an independent trajectory of the widened reproduction in the world market scale, playing the role of “growth-locomotive” for the whole economics. At the same time, from the social point of view, the realization of the priority trends of the structural economics reconstruction should be followed by the employment widening, increase of the salary and of the qualification of the working population. So the government activity should be aimed at the creation of the conditions for the growth of competitiveness of the economic agents and for the new jobsites appearance by means of using the opportunities given by new informational technologies for the development of the e-commerce, modernization of the business management, promotion of the new products and services. The change of the technological lifestyle with the change of the character and of the public consumption structure takes place. So, the science-intensive and IT activity becomes more perspective. That is why the system balance of macro- and micro-economic processes during the formation of the optimal structure of management of the transition processes of Russia to the model of stable development should be provided.