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REFLECTION Sufi Ideas in Miniature
(Based on the works of Alisher Navoi)
Mahmudzhonova Gulzoda Mahmudjon
National Institute of Arts and Design named after Kamoliddin Bekhzod
Article is devoted to Sufi otrozhenii ideas in miniature on the works of Alisher Navoi.
Keywords: Sufism, Alisher Navoi, Herat, Portrait Miniatures, Calligraphy, Language Birds,a manuscript that human knowledge.
Hand written book was valued in Muslim societies as sacred and precious and has been a collaborative effort calligrapher ornamentalist, miniaturist and the census-pilot. Reading and viewing of the manuscript should have been delivered to the intellectual and aesthetic pleasure.At the present time, during the renewal of our society towards democratization and humanization of education, one of the principal means of forming a new type of personality is an art, with its huge potential for aesthetic and artistic excellence.
Nurture a sense of beauty in the national, to form a high aesthetic tastes, the ability to understand and appreciate the works of national art, historical monuments, the beauty and richness of native wildlife should be from an early age, when the foundations of the national perception of the child, the foundation of the creative potential of his personality. At the same time in the education of the individual funds of the national heritage should be based on national best images of national culture that are based on national artistic traditions of the people, since it is this, that is, in this case, miniature painting, is our spiritual, aesthetic and moral value. His moral aesthetic content of beneficial effects on the education of artistic and spiritual education. The experience of work and study, we concluded that the miniature painting has several advantages over other types of fine art in the aesthetic education and art education, as it is with the full inclusion of the appointed, extra-curricular activities of students will vary the general variety and diversity.His birth, miniature painting Oriental manuscripts must, as it seamlessly blended into it, often illustrated with artwork, stories and sometimes miniature paintings go beyond the purely illustrative and is a separate piece of picturesque art.Life and Work of Alisher Navoi (1441-1501gg.), Its state and public activity in the second half of XV century. Timurid era, culture dawn in Samarkand and Herat Mavrerannahre in Khorasan. The best examples of manuscripts created in Herat in the era of Alisher Navoi artists under his patronage or returned by them.
Alisher Navoi outstanding poet of the East, Sufi philosopher lines, a statesman of the Timurid Khorasan. The creative heritage of Alisher Navoi is huge and varied: it includes about 30 large pieces - sofas (poems), epics (epos), philosophical and scientific treatises. Using a centuries-old cultural traditions of Muslim peoples of Central Asia and the Middle East, Alisher Navoi creates quite original works.
In the fine art of the second half of XV century. There is a large change due to the influence of Navoi. (2) For the period characterized by the appearance of new subjects, the transition to the image not only the events of the epic and legendary and mythological epos, but also scenes of contemporary works and life, historical events, portraits, landscapes, home environment. Taking into account the arbitrariness inherent in the art of miniature legitimately say that, in Herat, in the era of Navoi realistic tendency in literature and miniature painting reached the highest take-off. Images of people, nature and wildlife artists passed very delicate and expressive. Paints, in spite of conventional and decorative, selected with great taste and skill, which indicated a desire to accurately reflect the artist's life.Later, in the XVI century. In Shiraz, Tabriz, Bukhara, and there are lots of artistic manuscript of Alisher Navoi.Lyric poems are difficult to dating, because responses to the known facts of life so they are rarely captured, and eventfulness for them at all is not peculiar. "Treasury of Thoughts" and the lyric poet, transmitting the full range of his experience. Along with the external love the plan they present the highest on-Sufi spetsalizirovanny and using traditional images of sensuous lyricism in a metaphorical way. In this original metaphors Navoi infused with traditional gleaned them from the rich tradition of oriental poetry.Love for the simultaneous high Navoi, spiritual, and exquisitely erotic, earthy feeling, which subordinates the rights and deprives himself of his freedom. And at the same time, it does not produce a poet of pessimism, as Navoi understands the suffering of love as the foundation of spiritual rebirth.Peak creativity of Navoi's famous "Pyateritsa" includes five epic poems: the didactic "Confusion just" (1483) and narrative heroic (epics), "Leili and Majnun" (1484), "Farhad and Shirin" (1484), "The Seven Planets "(1484)," The Wall Iskander "(1485).At the end of life Navoi wrote an allegorical poem, "The Language of Birds" (1499) and didactic philosophical essay "Beloved Hearts" (1500) about the best unit of human society. And another popular way of love-Shaykh Sanaan which vlyubivschis in the beautiful Christian woman, ready to renounce Islam, forbidden to drink wine, eat the forbidden (Khar) pork. He even agrees to these vile mouth, from the perspective of a Muslim, Animal, invoking fear and ridicule murids. But as it turned out, his complete self-abnegation in the name of love, and was the highest spiritual achievement.Illustrated manuscript of the poem found in Qazvin and Bukhara. (7, 8.) Miniatures of this poem Navoi artists choose just those scenes, which are the main love story in Sheikh (Meeting with Christian, Christian treats wine Sheikh, Sheikh pasturing pigs, and Beauty-Christian asks for forgiveness from Sheikh Sanaana). In the manuscript of Bukhara Parizheskoy National Library of illustrations made bolshoim master, who managed to have a choice of subjects pakazat Sufi sheikh way: In Love with Sheikh Sanaan a Christian beauty falls without jitteriness, feeding cattle pigs Students visit the sheikh; Christian woman asks for forgiveness from the sheikh, sheikh dead at the source . (7 ill.30-32, 8, ill. 183) in which he almost never uses the symbols (except the first miniature, where last-minute language of the tribe in a niche under the window peering Christians symbolize passion and ocheschenie Sheikh) or other signs, but simply shows the corresponding plot of the stage, referring to the dedicated viewer. This was the dream of the life of the poet. Tragically aware of the impossibility of their political ideals, he nevertheless believed in the ultimate victory of light began. Hence, life-affirming optimism and strength of his creations.This is illustrated by plots of subjects, prestavlyavshaya an impact on ideology and an apology for feudalism: the glorification of the ruler of the scene, his military prowess fighting the battle, hunting, statecraft philosophical discussions and debates sages lavish court festivities and entertainment. Thumbnail was designed to help develop the character and direction of the spiritual interests and tastes of readers. Generate a thumbnail artists were flesh and blood of his people, and they with sincerity and conviction embodied in his works, the aspirations of the people, their dreams and ideas of the beautiful, whole people expressed their ideals.In the countries of the Middle East was formed several renowned centers of illustrating books. These centers include: Shiraz, Tabriz, Baghdad, Herat, and Yazd, Qazvin, Isfahan. In Central Asia, it was the Samarkand and Bukhara.
The centuries-old Sufi preaching the illusory nature of the material world and the real existence of God only truth leads to a loss of interest in human personality, of her personality. In this regard, etiquette began to develop an image of reality, in which a person is not in itself but as an abstract representative of a category of people. (4,. 416)
Sufi themes thumbnails Khorasan last quarter of XV century. And Maverannahr XV-XVII centuries. and became the main objective of this publication, as it has relevance as a scantily explored, and a very important layer of the spiritual heritage of the past.
Its visible reflection of the teachings of Sufism through illustrations of the literary source was in Herat last quarter of the XV century miniature. In the work of Behzad and his school, manifesting itself in a certain democratization of subjects, reflecting the earlier life of the court circle.That blogadarya impact of ideas of Sufism in Herat miniature, and followed her into Transoxiana, Safavid Iran, Mongolia, India and Turkey appear topics that reflect the Sufi view of life and death, work and love. Images of artisans, builders, visitors bath, wrestlers, the common people, the Sufis and dervishes, flour, unrequited love (the death of Farhad and Laila Majnun, Sheikh Sanaan and Christian) are populyarnymi in Herat miniature. A special place is occupied by subjects connected with images of Sufi ascetic, or a dervish sheikh, a feast.An important feature: Sufi poetry tends to be folk poetry, although she is not alien elements nektrye courtly. (1) Ideally, the poet-Sufi, even if it is marked by poetic genius, and something significant can not be esoteric, tends to get lost among the common people, sharing all their sorrows and misfortunes. This setup corresponds to the position of Sufism in general, from the first centuries of its existence, attached great importance due to the spread of a wandering dervish narodom.Ego: routes of their movements have become a kind of capillaries along and around kryh created Sufi orders (they are called. And orders). In the official Islamic brotherhood do not change anything. They only complement and deepen it; at least, so say the sheikhs.It is important to note that the appearance of a miniature painting themes of Sufi Zikr Majlis and is a credit to Behzad and his school, in any case, we are up to that time is not met. Thus, it is these stories more evidence of amplification of Sufi influence in Herat society last quarter of XV century.
1. AJ Arberry. Sufism. Mystics of Islam. Per. with angl.M., 2002.
2. AkimushkinO.F. Ivanov AA About Maverannahrskoy school miniature zhivovisi XVII. Dushanbe, 1987.
3. Ashrafi, MM Behzad and the development of Bukhara school of miniatures in the XVI. Dushanbe, 1987.
4. EE Bertels Sufism and Sufi Literature / / Selected Works \ \ T.3.M., 1965.
5. Galerkin O. Thumbnail Transoxiana. L., 1980. C.35.
6. Ismailov EM, EA Polyakov East miniatyura.T., 1980.
7. Suleiman H. Thumbnail for poems Alisher Navoi.T., 1970.
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