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PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RENAL FUNCTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON MINERAL WATERS OF UKRAINE IN THE EXPERIMENT / ФИЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОЦЕНКА ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНОГО СОСТОЯНИЯ ПОЧЕК В УСЛОВИЯХ ВЛИЯНИЯ КРЕМНИЕВЫХ МИНЕРАЛЬНЫХ ВОД УКРАИНЫ В ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТЕ

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RENAL FUNCTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SILICON MINERAL WATERS OF UKRAINE IN THE EXPERIMENT  / ФИЗИОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОЦЕНКА ФУНКЦИОНАЛЬНОГО СОСТОЯНИЯ ПОЧЕК В УСЛОВИЯХ ВЛИЯНИЯ КРЕМНИЕВЫХ МИНЕРАЛЬНЫХ ВОД УКРАИНЫ В ЭКСПЕРИМЕНТЕ
Sergey Gushcha, senior research associate

Institute Research of Medical Rehabilitation and Balneology of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Ukraine

Boris Nasibullin, professor, doctor of medicine

Nikolay Kalinichenko, senior research associate, candidate of medicine

Irina Balashova, senior research associate, candidate of medicine

Nataliya Yaroshenko, junior research associate

Irina Puzyreva, junior research associate

Institute Research of Medical Rehabilitation and Balneology of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Odessa

Conference participant

УДК: 615.327.015.4.076.9

 

In the experiment on 60 white rats was investigated renal function of animals treated for 7 days and had a silicon poorly mineralized mineral water (MW). CF injected into the esophagus soft probe of the oil, once daily, at a dose of 1% of body weight. Found that used of silicon weak and little mineralized MW have biological activity, the nature of which is to some extent determined by the ratio metasilicic acid content of the total mineralization and the content of sodium and chloride ions. That is, increasing the total salinity and sodium, diuretic effect which reveals metasilicic acid which is a part MW is reduced. The findings expand the imagination of the mechanisms of the urine producing and excretory functions of the kidneys of mammals under the influence of silicon weak and little mineralized MW, which by their nature are xenobiotics and their effects on the body are considered stress factors of low intensity.

Keywords: Silicon weak and little mineralized mineral water, biological activity, white rats, kidney function.       

В эксперименте на 60 белых крысах исследовали функциональное состояние почек животных, получавших в течение 7 суток кремниевые слабо и маломинерализованные минеральные воды (МВ). МВ вводили в пищевод мягким зондом с оливкой, один раз в сутки в дозе 1% от массы тела животного. Установлено, что кремниевые слабо и маломинерализованные МВ обладают биологической активностью, характер которой в определенной степени определяется соотношением содержания метакремниевой кислоты к общей минерализации и содержанию ионов натрия и хлорид-ионов. То есть, с ростом общей минерализации и содержанием натрия диуретический эффект, который проявляет метакремниевая кислота в составе МВ, снижается. Полученные данные расширяют представление о механизмах мочеобразовательной и экскреторной функций почек млекопитающих под воздействием кремниевых слабо и маломинерализованных МВ, которые по своей природе являются ксенобиотиками и по своему воздействию на организм могут рассматриваться, как стрессорные факторы малой интенсивности.

Ключевые слова: кремниевые слабо и маломинерализованные минеральные воды, биологическая активность, белые крысы, функциональное состояние почек.

 

One of the most important aspects of the operation of mineral water (MW) in their ibternal use is their effect on kidney function, providing excretion of end products of nitrogen metabolism, endogenous and exogenous organic and inorganic substances. The kidneys play an important role in maintaining the sustainability of basic physical and chemical constants blood adjusting its ion composition, blood pressure, composition of organic compounds [1, 2, 3].

In the formation of the general reaction of the body response to long-term water stress, the most importance is their impact on the kidneys [4, 5, 6].

This fully applies to the MW with high content of acid metasilicic with different mineralization. Features of the biological effects of silicon weakly mineralized MW (SMW) on renal function is defined in a number of experimental studies [7, 8, 9]. Such SMW as "Znam'yanivska" and "Dana" in the two-week course of oral administration in healthy rats cause a meaningful increase of urine producing and renal excretory function, as evidenced by activating certain features exhausting apparatus glomerular nephrons (the amount of daily urine output increases 3.7 and 6.2 times, respectively). [7]

The presence of biologically active components and compounds and substances such as silicon, which by their nature are xenobiotics, at long receipt in an organism as a part of MW cause development of the general adaptation reaction and increase nonspecific resistance. By its influence on the body they are stress factors of low intensity, that is, when uncontrolled, prolonged use can cause distress. [10]

Constant stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, growth of adrenocorticotropic hormone cortisol and adrenaline in the blood can lead to the breakdown of protective and adaptive power of the body [7].

It should be noted that the effect of silicon weakly mineralized MW on kidney function may be different from WMW action that may be due to the peculiarities action macro structure of MoU on the nature of biological effects.

Objective: a comparative analysis of the impact of slabkomineralizovanyh and malomineralizovanyh MB metasilicic acid containing 36 to 220 mg / l on the kidney function of healthy animals for their internal use.According to the existing criteria to silicon MW include MW, which have contents of metasilicic acid of at least 50 mg / l [11].

Materials and Methods

Experimental studies conducted on 68 white female rats Wistar autbreeding camytsyah weighing 180 - 200 g. During the whole period of the experiment animals were on constant standard of food and drinking regime in terms of keeping them in control vivarium of "Ukr.SRI MRK of Ministry of Health of Ukraine." Studies on animals were conducted in compliance with the existing legal instruments. [12]. Investigated MW administered to animals in the esophagus by soft probe with metal olive, once daily, at a dose of 1% of body weight, in the evening (around 17.00), taking into account circadian biorhythm of rats. Water load was conducted by the course, which consisted of seven daily injections. Rats were ranked into 5 groups: the first group (20 pcs.) -  intact animals treated with tap water and used as a control group; the second group (12 pcs.) - healthy animals treated with a course of MW "Regina"; the third group (12 pcs.) - the animals treated with a course of MW from wells №1062 from. Lower Solotvino; the fourth group (12 pcs.) - animals receiving MW from wells №30-D from the village Dravci, fifth group (12 pcs.) - animals receiving MW from wells №1-3G from v.Barvimok and sixth group of animals (12 pcs.), who used MW from wells №1657 diluted by groundwater of wells №168 from village Sataniv of  Horodotsk district of Khmelnitsky region.

Renal function was evaluated by urine formation (glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, daily urine output), the output functions (excretion of creatinine and urea), ion regulatory function (concentration and daily excretion of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions).We determined the acid-alkaline reaction of  urine by the concentration of hydrogen ions. The concentration of creatinine in urine and blood were determined by Popper. The content of urea in the urine was conducted by urease method of reagent Neslera. The level of daily urine output was investigated after the first and the last procedure for which the animals were placed in metabolic cages designed to collect urine. Electrolyte concentration in urine determined on device - electrolyte analyzer AEK-01 "Kvero."

Techniques that were involved in the research, correspond to Guidelines [13]. Statistical analysis of the data in a series of experiments performed by indirect differences, while changes were deemed credible by those that were within the tables Student's probability <0.05 [14].

The research used the following MW. 

MW "Regina" - weakly mineralized hydrocarbonate magnesium-calcium water from village. Murovani Kurylivtsi Vinnytsia region. Composition formula MW:

 

The content of  metasilicic acid - 0,36 mg / l.

As a result of physical and himichnyyh studies, groundwater from wells №1062. of Lower Solotvyno, Uzhgorod district, Transcarpathian region described as silicon weakly mineralized sodium bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium water.

Composition formula MW:

The content of sodium and potassium - 16,8 mg / l, content of metasilicic acid - 103 mg / l.

MW from wells №3—D of. Dravce, Transcarpathian region is silicon carbon weakly mineralized hydrocarbonate calcium-sodium, magnesium-calcium-sodium water. Currently used for industrial packaging as table water treatment and "Living flint" ( "Acqui").

The content of sodium and potassium - 173,8 mg / l, metasilicic acid in an amount of 142,39 mg / l.

Physico-chemical composition of water from wells №1G of. Periwinkle, Uzhgorod district, Transcarpathian region: silicon little mineralized sodium bicarbonate, at certain concentrations of water containing orthoboric acid.

Н3 ВO0,1036-0,051 

The content of of sodium and potassium is 770,3 mg / l, and the content metasilicic acid is 190-240 mg / l.

The results of chemical analysis of dilution of MW from wells №11657 by groundwater from wells №168 of village Sataniv, Horodotsk district, Khmelnitsky region, in the proportion of 1: 39.01 to 1: 19.84 obtained diluted mineral water (DMW) - silicon little mineralized chloride calcium-sodium, the chemical composition of which corresponds to the following formula:

The content of of sodium and potassium is 464 mg / l, chloride ions 1100 mg / l, and the content metasilicic acid is 74 mg / l.

Results of these studies is given in Table 1. According to Table 1, the use of MW"Regina" causes a significant acceleration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) primary urine in the kidney glomeruli by 36% (p <0.001), which increases the amount of daily diuresis by 53% (at p <0.001), although the magnitude of tubular reabsortsiyi water in renal tubules does not change (p> 0.1).Excretion of creatinine, urea and daily urine pH does not differ from the data of the control group (p> 0.1). The concentration of potassium ions in hour urine decreased by 30%, but does not change their excretion (p <0.001). Thus, the concentration of sodium ions is reduced by 68%, their excretion by 50% (p <0.01), and concentration of chloride ions in daily urine reduced by 50% and their excretion by 22% (p <0.001). That is, the kidneys work is aimed at excretion of hypotonic urine. According to the literature a large amount of water can be excrete even if the urine is practically free of sodium and other solutes. [15]

Tabl.1

Effect of silicon MW on indicators of kidney function in rats, %

Indicators

ІІ group MW

«Regina»

ІІІ group MWw.

№ 1062

Lower Solotvyn

ІV group MWw.

№ 30-D

«Living flint»

group MW

w. № 1-ЗГ

v. Barvinok

 

VІ  group MW

v. Sataniv

 

Daily diuresis, ml / dm2 body surface

153*

134*

118

133 *

94

Glomerular filtration rate, ml / (dm2 × min)

136*

145*

136*

150*

107

Tubular reabsorption,

percentage of filtration,

100

101

100

101

100

Creatinine output,mmol

100

145*

136*

150*

107

Excretion of urea

mmol

95

103

58*

130*

96

daily urine pH, un

104

102

127*

102

102

The concentration of potassium in the daily urine, mmol / l

65*

61**

72 *

80*

174*

The daily excretion of potassium, mmol

96

73*

44*

50*

126*

The concentration of sodium in the daily urine, mmol / l

32*

188*

242*

218*

318*

The daily excretion of sodium, mmol

50*

255*

240*

260*

216*

The concentration of chloride ions in the daily urine, mmol / l

50*

103

105

107

147*

The daily excretion of chloride ions, mmol

78*

171*

97

120*

118

 

Note. Data of the research groupswere calculated as a percentage of the first group, which are 100%, * - significant comparison.

As influenced of MW "Regina", the process of urine formation in the kidneys of rats under the influence of MW from wells N1062 of. Lower Solotvino also stimulated, as evidenced by the increase in daily urine output by 34% (p <0.001) only by speeding of GFR by 45%, while increasing by 45% withdrawal creatinine (p <0.001). The concentration of potassium ions in daily urine decreased by 40% and their excretion - 30% (p <0.001). But for the balance of sodium and chloride ions this MW has the influence opposite of impact of MW "Regina." The concentration and urinary excretion of sodium in daily urine increased by 88 and 155%, respectively (p <0.001) and the excretion of chloride ions by 70% (p <0.001). That suggests that the presence in the MW from w.N1062 metasilicic acid in an amount of 100 mg / l when the content of sodium and potassium in amounts - 16.8 mg / l, with a total mineralization of 0,23 g / l compared to the active of the MW "Regina" (metasilicic acid content - 36 mg / l, total mineralization of 0,61 g / l, content of sodium and potassium in an amount of about 14 mg / l), causes the activation of production of urine, excretory and ion regulating function of kidney.

When used MW friom w.N30-D "Living flint" significant changes of the production of urineand renal function compared to the control is not established, the amount of daily urine output unchanged despite a significant acceleration of GFR, creatinine excretion increased by 36% (p <0.001). But at the same excretion of urea is reduced by 42%, indicating a slight decrease in output of products of nitrogen metabolism (disturbed balance of catabolism products output). Daily urine pH value is shifted to the alkaline side. The concentration of potassium ions in daily urine decreased by 26% and their excretion by 56% (p <0.001).

Kidney function of healthy rats under the influence of the course of MW from w. N1 G           v. Barvinok is activated (as shown in Table. 1). GFR increased by 50% (<0.001), which increases the volume of daily urine output by 33% (p <0.001), although the magnitude of tubular reabsorption of water does not change (p> 0.1). Stimulates renal excretory function, as evidenced by an increase in creatinine and urea excretion by 60 and 30% (p <0.001), respectively). The concentration of potassium ions in daily urine decreased by 20% and their excretion - 50% (p <0.001). The concentration and excretion of sodium in daily urine increase by 120 and 160%, respectively (p <0.001) and the excretion of chloride ions by 20% (p <0.001). Consequently this MW has a more stimulating effect on the kidneys than MW from w.N30-D "Living flint" probably not only through the presence of its physical and chemical composition of orthoboric acid (which has diuretic effect) and a greater difference in the ratio of content of sodium, potassium acid to metasilicic (770,3 mg / l to 130-220 mg / l) [18].

MW from  v.Sataniv in the course of internal use has not affect for urinary production, as evidenced by the absence of significant changes in the volume of daily urine output, GFR and tubular reabsorption compared with the data of the control group. Indicators of excretion products of nitrogen metabolism (urea and creatinine excretion), also did not undergo significant changes. But while significantly stimulated ion regulating renal function. Unlike all the above MW, concentration and urinary excretion of potassium in daily urine is not reduced, but increased by 74 and 26%, respectively (p <0.001). The concentration and urinary excretion of sodium increases by 218 and 116% (p <0.001), the concentration of chloride ions is increased by 47% (p <0.001), and their excretion is to improve reliability. This pattern of change of kidney function (significantly increased concentration of electrolyte excretion in daily urine and saving background level of data monitoring indicators characterizing the process of urine formation), can be explained by high intakes of sodium and potassium (464 mg / l) and hloryd- ion (1100 mg / l) as a part of MW from v. Sataniv. Therefore, reabsorption of electrolytes is reduced, and the kidneys eliminate excess the hypertonic urine. In addition, the macrocomponent composition of this MW eliminates the inherent metasilicic acid strong diuretic effect.

Thus, we can assume that the biological activity of silicon MW is determined not only by the presence and quantity of specific agent (metasilicic acid), but its ratio of macrocomponent composition of MW. Macrocomponent composition of MW is significant, but one of the components of the multi-effects on mammals organism.

Summarizing the above, we can assume that investigated silicon MW have biological activity, the nature of which is to a certain extent determined by the ratio of metasilicic acid content of the total mineralization and the content of sodium ions.

 

References:

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Comments: 4

Khimich Galina Zakharovna

Уважаемые авторы! Вами проведена большая трудоёмкая экспериментальная работа на лабораторных животных. Работа интересная и актуальная. Бесконтрольный приём минеральной воды авторы рассматривают как стрессогенный фактор и тому даётся обоснование и сделаны статистически обоснованные выводы. Желаю Вам дальнейших успехов. Проф.Химич Г.З.

Hryhorenko Liubov Victorovna

Уважаемые авторы! Эксперимент на крысах очень интересный. Вы пропагандируете использование торговых марок определенных брендов.Насколько мне известно, при представлении научных данных рекомендуется указывать например производитель 1 2 или 3. Даже в зарубежных материалах иначе посчитают что Вы рекламируете своих спонсоров.Что касается экстраполяции результатов на организм человека можно ли тоже самое рекомендовать для людей с уважением Григоренко Любовь

Kokolova Luidmila

Авторами проведена экспериментальные исследования проводились на лабораторных животных вводили животное в пищеводе с помощью мягкого зонда с металлической оливой, один раз в день, в дозе 1% от веса тела водой со скважины, обработанные с водопроводной водой, с контрольной группой. Наличие биологически активных компонентов и соединений и веществ, таких как кремний, которые по своей природе являются ксенобиотиками, при длительном поступлении в организм в части разработки вызывают МВт общей реакции адаптации и повышения не специфической резистентности организма. Под его влиянием на организм они стрессовые факторы низкой интенсивности, то есть, когда бесконтрольное, длительное использование может вызвать стресс. Тема исследования актуальна и в исследованиях получены достоверные результаты.

Vacheva Danelina

Уважаемые Коллеги, Ваша тема исследования является очень интересной и актуальной, принимая во внимание большое ежедневное использование минеральной воды для питья. Выводы в статье, являются результатом обширной статистической обработки результатов. Я желаю Вам успехов в дальнейшей научной работе. доц. Данелина Вачева, д.м. гр.Плевен, Болгария
Comments: 4

Khimich Galina Zakharovna

Уважаемые авторы! Вами проведена большая трудоёмкая экспериментальная работа на лабораторных животных. Работа интересная и актуальная. Бесконтрольный приём минеральной воды авторы рассматривают как стрессогенный фактор и тому даётся обоснование и сделаны статистически обоснованные выводы. Желаю Вам дальнейших успехов. Проф.Химич Г.З.

Hryhorenko Liubov Victorovna

Уважаемые авторы! Эксперимент на крысах очень интересный. Вы пропагандируете использование торговых марок определенных брендов.Насколько мне известно, при представлении научных данных рекомендуется указывать например производитель 1 2 или 3. Даже в зарубежных материалах иначе посчитают что Вы рекламируете своих спонсоров.Что касается экстраполяции результатов на организм человека можно ли тоже самое рекомендовать для людей с уважением Григоренко Любовь

Kokolova Luidmila

Авторами проведена экспериментальные исследования проводились на лабораторных животных вводили животное в пищеводе с помощью мягкого зонда с металлической оливой, один раз в день, в дозе 1% от веса тела водой со скважины, обработанные с водопроводной водой, с контрольной группой. Наличие биологически активных компонентов и соединений и веществ, таких как кремний, которые по своей природе являются ксенобиотиками, при длительном поступлении в организм в части разработки вызывают МВт общей реакции адаптации и повышения не специфической резистентности организма. Под его влиянием на организм они стрессовые факторы низкой интенсивности, то есть, когда бесконтрольное, длительное использование может вызвать стресс. Тема исследования актуальна и в исследованиях получены достоверные результаты.

Vacheva Danelina

Уважаемые Коллеги, Ваша тема исследования является очень интересной и актуальной, принимая во внимание большое ежедневное использование минеральной воды для питья. Выводы в статье, являются результатом обширной статистической обработки результатов. Я желаю Вам успехов в дальнейшей научной работе. доц. Данелина Вачева, д.м. гр.Плевен, Болгария
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