facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley

PSYCHOLOGICAL MEANS FOR CREATING ART IMAGES

Автор Доклада: 
Ryumshina L.


PSYCHOLOGICAL MEANS FOR CREATING ART IMAGES

       Ryumshina Liubov Ivanovna, Doctor of Psychology, Professor
Southern Federal University

The article examines the role of the expressive means in transferring the emotional state of the characters and the creation of art images in general. It is shown that as the arts progress, their main mission becomes the individualization and the emphasis on the uniqueness of the inner world and experiences of the created characters.
Keywords: art, expression, image, theatrical performance, painting, literature text

It is hard to deny that art has inexhaustible supplies of the materials, without which a scientific psychology can not manage. On the other hand, art criticism also needs the psychological grounds. The art is the finding of the sign corresponding to the essence wrote S. Volkonsky , and according to L. Vygotsky, on the basis of the analysis of these signs are recreated the emotions corresponding to them [6]. Let's see with the help of which means-signs, the art images are created and their essence is expressed.
In times of the universal illiteracy, one of the major art forms, as you know, was the theatrical performance, which essentially visualized a literary text. Since this performance was calculated on the broad masses of the population, the art of the theater was born in the square. Of course, in the medieval mystery plays, mask comedies, legends of the eastern theater, the images were not so realistic. Satan, the serpent-tempter, etc. were fantastic, scary, funny, and at the same time they were the symbols of the passions and vices. And the plays were performed in the special circumstances. The actors had to win the audience that was sitting and standing around the stage, and even on the stage. Therefore, this kind of acting had its special feature - it was necessary to convey to the viewer the maximum information by the minimum means accessible to all. Such means was the expression.
Already in the square performance the word was preceded by the gesture. Actor’s accurately directed movement had to gather the attention of the viewer, sitting at a distance, otherwise it would take him a long time to find out who opens the mouth on the stage. From the square theater the significance of the motions of an actor, gesture generality, accuracy and showiness of his body angle "passed" on to the theater stage [3].
It should be noted that in the ancient poems, the dialogue of the characters did not play any significant role, it described their actions. In this regard, in the theatrical performance is so important the gesture, posture, gait of the character, not their relationships. The character does not yet act like a free acting being [4]. That is why a mask played a big role in the theatrical performance, to some extent depersonalizing the actors. In other words, the protagonist was not the actor, as a creator, a personality, but his role, reflected in the mask.
In the Greek theater, the mask, visible even to the viewers sitting on the most distant benches of the amphitheater, was a sign of passion, sorrow or joy. The mask carried a generalization, which the gesture, plastic of the body also demanded. They were supposed, before the word or with it, give an accurate, eye-catching image. Everything was exaggerated - summed up in the high moral categories. The mask helps the expressiveness of the word, because by generalizing the movement, it focuses the attention on the essential. Of course, the nuances of the facial expressions were lost at that distance. Different masks were divided into the masks of the tragedy, comedy, drama, and common; male and female masks, masks of the ambassadors, teachers, gods and heroes. Some masks even personified the various concepts: city, war, alcoholism, etc. "Kind and generous father," for example, was shown as follows: short hair cut, smiling face, with downcast eyes. Adamant and miserly father - thin, sunken cheeks, red hair [5]. Cunning, impudence, trustful tenderness were passed through an elongated, leaned back and strangled "neck".
In Japanese and Chinese theaters, where the movement is the main mean for the creation of the dramatic image, the great importance is given to it. The performances of these theaters are a complex fusion of the pantomime, ballet, music, however, they differ fundamentally from those genres. The theatre of Japan and China is rather relative in its form, but has its own aesthetics, captivating originality and completeness. In the moments of the emotional outbursts, frustration, joy and love explanations, the gestures, movements of the actors are selected and flexible. The internal world of the actor is passed through the conventional postures and gestures. The viewer is excited by the smooth, then sharp movements, expressing pain or joy. Every gesture - a sign, the word only accompanies the gesture. At the same time, the expressive posture - the main thing in the art of Kabuki: the threat is expressed by its posture, happiness - its own [3].
Thus, not only the face, but every muscle in the body can express joy or anger, sadness or joy. The arms and body can also smile or suffer, as the eyes or lips.
The nature of the human activity, reflected in the movement, found its place not only in the theater, but also in the sculpture and painting. There is a lot of feelings in "The Sinner" by Rodin. Great body, twisted by the passions and vices, says about the agony, tragic outcome. His Thinker put his hand on the other knee, this is what gives such intensity to his figure, a passionate thought, put in immobility.
The human hand is very impressive too. For example, in confirmation of this Golubovsky (ibid.) gives a description of the painting "Menshikov in Berezov" by Surikov. Menshikov’s hand, strong and powerful, adorned with the only expensive piece in the whole room - a large ring, is lying on his knee. And through this, we understand, as the author writes, that he did not forget anything or forgive anybody. Thus, thanks to the image of the hand is passed the smoldering hatred, a strange desire for the revenge. D?rer carefully studied the human hands, finding in them a huge variety of the characters. Great importance to the description of the hands was given by Zweig, who believed that they give the players away.
Thus, regardless of whether it's the theater or painting, the purpose of the expression was the same: to convey the character and feelings of the character, so as to create its generalized image (of a fool, liar, dictator, etc.).
From the time of the creation of the writing, the literary texts play a critical role in the human society. Typically, a work of art is defined as the text that uses the linguistic resources in their aesthetic function in order to transfer the emotional and socially meaningful content [cited by 1].
But by what psychological means are the character images of the literature texts created? Let us turn to Dostoevsky - one of the most talented writers in describing the psychology of the characters. In the center of his works is a "man of the Russian majority," with his unsettledness and complexity of his inner and outer being. Dostoevsky is trying to express all the disorder and chaos of his character’s existence, and the complexity of his spiritual experiences. For example, in his sentimental novel - "White Nights". The main characters are introduced on the bridge channel. The female character (Nastya) stood, leaning on the grating, thoroughly looking at the muddy water of the channel. While the male character was daring to approach her, she "woke up, looked around .., looked down and slipped past ..." [2, p.159]. And through this "slipped", Dostoevsky pictures the youth of the female character, and her lively character. And further: "... the girl walked like an arrow, hastily and timidly, as generally walk all the girls who do not want someone to volunteer to escort them home at night ... She walked like the wind ..". Here is the continuation of the line of the girl’s youth and "ease", and already her relation to the others: she walked in such a way, so that to show the men that she is not going to get acquainted with them.
Of course, Dostoevsky's works - a storehouse of the psychological description of the experiences of the character. When the male character gets the last letter from Nastya, where she says she is getting married, his internal state is pictured as follows. "I looked at Matryona ... She was still vigorous, youthful old woman, and I do not know why, but suddenly she appeared to me with the lacklustre eyes, wrinkles on her face, bent, decrepit ... I do not know why, I suddenly imagined that my room had aged as well as the old woman ... all tarnished ... the house, which stands opposite, also grew decrepit and faded ... and I saw myself, as I am now, exactly fifteen years older, in the same room, just as lonely, with the same Matryona ..." [ibid., p. 202] .
After a description of the old age, and not only of the person (Matryona), but of the things as well, Dostoevsky conveys the strong emotional experiences of the male character, the grief of the loss of the love and fear of the loneliness.
So, as you can see the literature text gives more space than the theater and painting, to use different means of the expression in the creation of the images. It is expression, which not only accurately conveys the feelings of the character, but also successfully creates his image. It may be a physical description that reveals the inner world and the character’s temper. But it may be difficult, practically inseparable on the elements description, which is possible, of course, for a few master-psychologists, as Dostoevsky. And in the process of the formation and development of the arts, the psychological means become more complex. One of their main destinations becomes the individualization and creation of a unique inner world and feelings of the characters.

References:

  • 1. Belyanin V.P. (2006). Psychology of literature criticism. M.: Genesis. (Russian Edition).
  • 2. Dostoevsky F.M. (1988). Novels and short stories. Collected Works. Leningrad: Nauka. Volume 2. (Russian Edition).
  • 3. Golubovsky B. (1986). Movement in the art of the actor. M.: "Art." (Russian Edition).
  • 4. Kagan M.S. (1988). World of communication. The problem of intersubjective relations. M.: Politizdat. (Russian Edition).
  • 5. Vinnichuk L. (1988). People, manners and customs of ancient Greece and Rome. Translation from Polish. Moscow: Higher School. (Russian Edition).
  • 6. Vygotsky L.S. (1987). Psychology of Art. M.: Education (Russian Edition).
7.4
Your rating: None Average: 7.4 (5 votes)

Также сложная тема; есть

Также сложная тема; есть работы А. Яффе на эту тему, быть может, будет Вам интересно.

Спасибо, обязательно посмотрю

Спасибо, обязательно посмотрю
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.