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THE EVOLUTION OF IDEAS ABOUT FEMALE BEAUTY: THE EXAMPLE OF FASHION

Автор Доклада: 
Pogontseva D.
Награда: 
THE EVOLUTION OF IDEAS ABOUT FEMALE BEAUTY: THE EXAMPLE OF FASHION

УДК 159.922.28

THE EVOLUTION OF IDEAS ABOUT FEMALE BEAUTY: THE EXAMPLE OF FASHION

Pogontseva Daria, candidate of psychological sciences
Southern federal university

In psychology, the problem is seen as a costume system of signs. This article discusses the historical aspect of the dynamics of the concepts of beauty, which are represented by considering the history of costume. To analyze the extensive historical range is taken from the ancient Greek world and ending with the contemporary.
Keywords: history of costume, views, beauty, representation.


Some of Russian researchers (V.A. Labunskaya, J.B. Narovskaya, E.V. Belugina, M. V. Burakova, etc.) shows, that expressive-Self of the person have played a leading role in relationship with itself and with others throughout their lives. Expressive-Self of person defined as a set of stable (physiognomy, individual and constitutional characteristics of the person), average resistance (design appearance: hair, makeup, jewelry, clothing) and dynamic parameters of expression (expressive, non-verbal behavior), organized in the space-time structures and tunable course of the development of psycho-physiological, psychological, social and psychological components of the personality structure the world [3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 21]. And as noted by V.A. Labunskaya appearance - isa set of anatomical, functional and social attributes of man are available to sensory-specific reflection. [10]. By the anatomic features include musculoskeletal structure of the face and body to the functional - different kinds of expressive movements of the human face and body (body language, speech) to the social - the exterior design elements in the form of clothing, cosmetics. The function of perception is limited to appropriate elements of difference - external features. It should also be emphasized that fashion is a dynamic component that responds to changing economic, political, social and cultural changes in society. In this fashion is widespread and is a means of familiarizing the individual to the social and cultural practices [1]. Thus, we can say that clothing is one way of self-presentation and can be a tool for studying the representations of a particular time. A fashion - is a representation of beauty.

As pointed out by MA Nesterov [19] "the main theme of fashion is" individual "costume, revealing the beauty and plasticity of the human body and emphasizing personality traits" . In this regard, there are two ways to do with the man and the human body in the history of costume, which received expression in the formative (deformed human figure, in accordance with the prevailing ideal) and body-looks (Bring the natural contours of the natural and plastic figures) costumes. However, both methods can demonstrate and represent the views of the beauty of the body of a given period. On the other hand a personal perception of our bodies limits our choice of clothing [27].
Most of the authors (Hoffman, Rouen, Makarova, Galitbarova) write about fashion, as a prism for the consideration of the ideals of feminine beauty at different times and stages of society, with Western culture survived more information because the fashion was part of the history, mentality for Russia it was less typical. In a paper by Tkachenko [26] analyzed within the framework of fashion concepts "grotesque," "ideal," "norm", which implies the unity of the natural, social and cultural principles "fashionableness" - an aesthetic substance of fashion.
At various times, ranging from antiquity to modern people trying to understand what constitutes beauty. In most cases, it came down to the identification of certain parameters and ratios.
As noted by I. Cohn [8 sec. 64] the history of the body is inseparable from the history of clothing, which includes at least three aspects - objective, technological and functional. The first answers the question, what part of the body is closed. Technological issue boils down to which of (leather, cloth, leaves, twigs, feathers, shells, just paint, etc.) and how to build and what is supported (just thrown over, tied or sewn specially) clothes. Finally, the functional question shows what is the clothes - physical protection from environmental influences, symbolic protection from the hostile gaze ("evil eye"), an ornament, a demonstration of social status, beauty, etc. Thus, one of the main sources narrating the ideals and images of beauty are books on the history of costume and fashion. In this context we are interested mainly in substantive and functional aspects of clothing, that is, as a "translator" of fashion trends and beauty standards. Thus, as fashion technology modification is to expose some parts of the body and hide others, so one of the functions of fashion can be considered - social mimicry.
Person's appearance - clothes, hair, jewelry - just point to his place in the social structure and cultural identity. A particular style of dress may be an expression of political protest, or, conversely, an indicator of adherence to traditions. The evolution of fashion is inseparable from the intellectual life of society [24].
n the ancient Greek era clothing accentuates the beauty of the female body, gently falling ennobled tissue through which the outlines lightly, and when the show through clear forms. [14 sec. 13]
In the III - IV centuries in the Roman Empire lost interest in the beauty of the human body, and consequently, the clothes can’t discover this beauty. [14 19]
In the VI century Byzantine traits show through the new face of women, which reflected in his teaching of the Christian religion on the nature of female nature. According to the teachings of the church the woman was a source of scandal and sin. Thus, the clothes created for the case of the body, but on the other hand the idea of female beauty ethereal, expressed in the peculiarly understood by the harmony of facial features [20].
In X-XI centuries, St. John Chrysostom dare say at that time that women love jewelry as well as their own children, and that prevents excessive luxury to reveal their natural beauty [24].
By the XIV century look almost frail-formed girl becomes the ideal of beauty, there is a corset. There are a number of works devoted exclusively corset [2] and their influence on the formation of ideas about beauty, but in this aspect, we do not dwell on it.
In the Middle Ages divides the image of women: she and the Virgin, and the Witch, and the beautiful lady, and the "seat of sin." The ideal is a slim (even skinny) woman, pale, with long limbs and a slightly protruding belly (the symbol of eternal pregnancy), which further emphasized the clothes with lots of wrinkles on the lower skirts, creating the appearance of pregnancy. In the XV century in Gothic style in fashion during the S-shaped silhouette of the figure [15]. To create it on your belly superimposed small quilted pillow - barefooted. Apparel narrow fetter the motion, elongate, dragging on the floor. The massive headdresses.
Despite the great influence of Italian Renaissance culture, the French concept of beauty in the early XVI century, especially during Francis I, was significantly different from the Italian. Curvaceous and free bodice, common in Italy, were not in the style of the French. Many of them had been in Italy during the military campaigns (1494-1559), were disappointed in the illustrious Italians beauty and splendor of their costume. The French found that the Italians are too full, and dress them up too wide. Following the established tradition and a certain taste, the French needed to create a beautiful proportions under certain pyramidal silhouette in Europe [14]. Germany creates his ideal of feminine beauty, which reflected the position of German women preferred medium at this time. In Germany, the woman did not occupy a significant place in the royal court, main feminine virtues can not be associated with a high level of culture and a secular way of life. Hence arose the image of the German women of the Renaissance: spicy, finicky, free glimpse of the intellect, with thin blond hair, a large prominent forehead, narrow eyes, almost sleepy expression. [14 p.74]
The New Face of British aristocracy speaks more sophisticated concept of beauty, of a more developed taste, a desire to involve not massive expensive suit and heavy ornaments, and its refined simplicity and picturesqueness, which could especially emphasize the femininity of Englishwomen. [14, p.105]
In the XVII century, still the concept of beauty was associated with an abundance of jewelry. Gradually the figure of a woman of short and wide into a tall and slender. Elegance - becomes the basis for further development of the French national understanding of feminine beauty, femininity.
In an era of Rococo fashion was considered a woman's figure, like a fragile porcelain figurine. Subtle forms of stressed finery. In a beautiful woman should be thin wasp waist, slightly rounded hips, a small head, narrow shoulders, open the chest, arms and neck.
As noted by D. Paquet in the XVIII century can be identified a new fashion trend: the handsome one who has a fresh glow to the face, ie someone who is healthy, it - across-the fascination with rouge. [20 p.54] By the early 50s of the XVIII century in the community felt a change. Gradually begin to dominate the minds of the idea of the beauty of all that is natural. Just XVIII century took a step towards women, the entire social life in Europe revolves around a woman, she becomes the object of special attention and admiration. Throughout the period of sensuality and sophistication define the basis for women's clothing aristocratic circles. By the end of the XVIII century negated everything that had been fashionable for centuries. Already in the 80th year, new aesthetic standards, which will be further developed. [24 p.125-128]
The next phase - 1850-1914, the reign of Queen Victoria. The center of fashion trends is - crinoline, by 1860, no woman get along without him. Reached new limits impractical corsages, as was the obligatory tight lacing, through which the waist is reduced to 45 centimeters [25].
Bourgeois culture in the century - the century of expediency. The woman must bear children, so it should have wide hips and full, firm breasts. All this is well-intentioned covered clothes, but it is not forbidden to emphasize the most “interestin” places. It is strictly forbidden in polite society just talk about body parts.
At the XIX-XX centuries, the ideal of feminine beauty in the west to the eastern approaches to the ideal. Belle looked like a chrysanthemum. An elegant lady now looks like this: a small head with high hair becomes elongated torso, compressed as a stalk of a flower, a corset, narrow sleeves and shoulders drooping leaves resemble, supplemented by a narrow skirt bustle, high heels make women insecure gait, which tells the whole figure fragility.
In 1909, the couturier Paul Poiret had dared to abandon the corset ... the new modern woman worships the new idol: androgynous body, youthful, even boyish lean, angular, tayaschemu some hidden ambiguities. [20]
Back in 1950-1960-s top female figure was considered the perfection with lush hips and thin waist. But already at the beginning of the 1970s have been adjusted in this way. Characteristic features of the new standard of beauty have been formulated owner of the largest in the New York office centerfold. Their essence is as follows: a minimum meter seventy growth, small breasts, silky hair, soft shoulders, long neck, narrow waist, beautiful hands, wide-set eyes, the mouth is not very big and very thin lips.
Thus, we can safely say that the idea of beauty man always went side by side with fashion, which in turn is rarely consistent with the body, according to the nature of man. As noted by P. Kurdyumov "clothes make such that it transformed the real body and made him sign a perfect body" [9; c. 108]. Signedness suit was expressed not only in emphasizing the individual characteristics, but also tried to give the body proportions and forms that were considered beautiful in any given period. Each era created their own examples of the aesthetic ideal of the human body. Tracing the dynamics of the standard notions of beauty in cultural studies and aesthetics, we can conclude that there are three standard, which cyclically alternated by correcting tendencies of a particular time. This image of a girl - teen (thin, sometimes even painfully thin, with angular figure), the second model - sports figure and a third standard - the buxom beauty ("Russian" or "Rubens’s" Beauty). In addition, each of these stages followed each other, one being the influence of various social and cultural aspects. On the other hand, the desire to meet these standards due to the need to meet some of the motivational group.
Based on the foregoing, we can say that the history of costume is a visual presentation of ideas about body image at any given historical period.

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Интересен Ваш "проект" с

Интересен Ваш "проект" с точки зрения, собственно, психологической: без "подглядывания" в историю моды и костюма, искусствоведческий анализ этой истории, изобразительную практику сопутствующую созданию, а точнее сказать, фиксации модного образа. Если Вам удастся (чего не случилось в данной публикации) определить точный вектор исследования, может состоятся действительно интересная и многогранная работа. Но, очевидно, наиболее сложно для каждого, кто берется исследовать такой достаточно популярный объект как мода, найти собственную "нишу" - предмет исследования, сформулировать "особый взгляд". Очень советую перечитать труды Ю.Легенького...

Оксана Николаевна, спасибо за

Оксана Николаевна, спасибо за ваш отзыв. Данную статью скорее можно было назвать как попытку проанализировать, а не сформулировать "особый взгляд". Целью я ставила понять, могу ли я использовать моду, как способ репрезентации красоты, поскольку основная моя тема это "представление о красоте".

Безусловно можете, но с

Безусловно можете, но с оглядкой на то, что мода - это не всегда "репрезентации красоты", в последней четверти ХХ века это довольно часто репрезентации обратного! Но и этому есть объяснение...

Эволюция женского образа в

Эволюция женского образа в моде - тема интересная и для психолога, и для дизайнера. Есть ряд работ, и важно здесь найти свой путь. Единственное, образы сложно оценивать и фиксировать: есть субъективный фактор. Здесь выход для обоснования исследования - экспертные оценки. ...Впрочем, в работе любого ученого в той или иной мере субъективный фактор присутствует, есть отпечаток личности в любой работе. Вероятно, для литературного обзора Вам будет интересна и книга сестер Сориных об имидже.

.

Татьяна Львовна, спасибо за ваш комментарий! У меня есть эта книга, к сожалению в рамках одной публикации невозможно объять необъятно, и думаю, Вы как специалист в данной области, понимаете, что под этим названием можно издать многотомный труд. Я пыталась повернуть тему моды именно к категории "красоты", как социально-психологического феномена. Но, осознаю, что вышло "беглое" описание темы в целом.
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