facebook
twitter
vk
instagram
linkedin
google+
tumblr
akademia
youtube
skype
mendeley
Wiki
Page translation
 

THE USE OF VARIETIES OF SUGARS IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT AND BERRY MARMALADE MASS

THE USE OF VARIETIES OF SUGARS IN THE TECHNOLOGY OF FRUIT AND BERRY MARMALADE MASS
Nataliya Overchuk, postgraduate student

Tetyana Zharuk, student

Yuliya Kambulova, candidate of technical science, associate professor

National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine

Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Ukraine";

The paper contains results of a study of structural-mechanical properties of marmalade masses using varieties of sugars in the technology of fruit and berry marmalade mass. The possibility of using the L-pectin in technology of fruit and jelly marmalade and reducing intare of sugar.

Keywords: marmalade, gel making, sugars, pectin.

 

There is almost no group of fruit and berry marmalade, which is a carrier of biologically active substances in the assortment of candy and jelly products produced by Ukrainian producers of confectionery products. In order to improve technological schemes of the most common in Ukraine fruit and berry marmalade, the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of varieties of fruit and berry puree have been studied. It was determined that the number of pectins, including water-soluble pectin gel as a fundamental factor, apple and cornel puree are related to the puree with a high pectin content, apricot – with middle one, raspberry, peach, buckthorn - with small one. In addition, only apple and cornel pectin are characterized as H-pectin, with low content of free carboxyl and acetyl groups. Patterns of formation of jelly masses (gelling ability) investigated for chosen species of puree are allowed to differentiate their technology focus and to recommend apple and cornel puree for the fruit and berry marmalade and apricot, peach, raspberry, buckthorn - for fruit and jelly introduction of additional gel making.

In technology of fruit and berry marmalade it is impossible to reduce the intake of prescription sucrose, however the study of the use of other types of sugars is important such as a lower glycemic index or calories. Thus glucose should be used to create the assortment of marmalade for children food, fructose - in technology products for diabetics.

The researches of gel quality that justify the need for improvement of technological schemes were necessary because the changing nature of the sugars significantly influences the behavior of pectin of apple puree.

Materials and research methods

In the experiment used the samples of marmalade mass on the basis of varieties of sugars: sucrose, glucose, fructose. On the device Valenta load to fracture of the gel is determined. Determination of structural-mechanical properties of marmalade masses along the curves of the dynamics of deformation was carried out using structurality, the principle of which is based on measuring the mechanical load on the nozzle indentor, dipping it with the preset speed in the prepared sample of the product. Curves of compression and unloading for samples of marmalade mass were built within 2 hours of standing. The analysis of curves allowed us to obtain several independent deformation characteristics: compressive, modulus of instantaneous elasticity, the effective viscosity, plasticity, softness, resilience, yield  of strength.

Results and discussion

It was established that the marmalade masses of the sucrose and glucose were removed well from the forms, did not stick, had a dry surface, that is, had a great jelly-forming ability under equivalent conditions of boiling. Fructose mass demanded more time to gelation, but it clung a little to the form and was characterized by satisfactory strength.

The results of determining the quality of the gel

Indicators of the quality of the gel

Apple puree, sucrose

Apple puree, glucose

Apple puree, fructose

Ease of die casting

good

The ease of extraction from the forms

mass is well removed from the forms

mass is well removed from the forms

The mass of poorly removed from the mold, requires more time to jelling

Gelling ability

great excellent

great

satisfactory

The gel strength

good

good

satisfactory

Surface condition

the surface is smooth with a shine

the surface is smooth

the surface is glossy and sticky

Tack

does not stick

does not stick

sticks

On the device Valenta load to fracture of the gel is determined.The highest rates are observed for the sample with glucose.

Detailed characterization of the mechanical properties of gelling systems is provided by a study of the development process of deformation, as when the load and the load is removed.The structural carcass of the gel determines the amount of elastic deformation; the liquid phase determines the amount of elastic deformation. Food gel systems are characterized by a slow deformation, that is, upon unloading, the deformation does not change instantaneously but with a delay and there is the elastic effect.

The gel strength

Samples

Gel strength, g

Sample №1  (sucrose)

207,72

Sample№2 (glucose)

314,67

Sample№3 (fructose)

203,18

Dynamics of deformation processes reveals some differences in the formation of structural-mechanical properties of prototypes of marmalade mass.

It was found that all the samples of marmalade mass partially lose their elastic properties under load, when significant deformation occurs in the body, that is, its original size and shape is not fully restored when unloading. Final plastic deformations for samples with glucose and fructose are fixed with the full lifting of external loads which in contrast to the samples with sucrose  are increased with time. At the same time, for samples with monosaccharides recoverability is reduced.

Along with this, the sample with sucrose has much greater resistance to the compression when the elastic deformation (The Young's Modulus) and hardness, that is, the ability not to be experienced by the plastic deformation.But in the process of maturation the sample with sucrose lowers the ability to resist, and the samples with the monosaccharides, on the contrary, gain it.

This confirms the increased compressive strain or the ability of a material to resist impact load.The higher is the value of this index, the lower is the elastic characteristics of the material. It is established that with increasing in time of proofing of samples the compressive deformation in the samples with sucrose is increasing and practically does not change after 80 minutes. Another words, in the process of maturation the gel on the sucrose is gradually losing the resistance to the loading, and the marmalade gel with fructose and particularly with glucose, on the contrary have a tendency to prevent deformation.

These studies allowed us to recommend more time for maturation for marmalade masses on fructose and glucose to achieve the desired structural and mechanical characteristics.

1)

2)

3)

Pic.1. Curves of compression and unloading:

1) glucose;

2) sucrose;

3) fructose.

Structural and mechanical indicators of marmalade mass in the sucrose.

Indicators

The time of maturation, min

40

80

120

Compressive, J/m3 *10-6

0,22

0,35

0,33

The Young's Modulus, Pa

0,29

0,26

0,25

Effective viscosity, Pa*s

0,85

0,99

0,95

Plasticity, units

0,79

0,74

0,74

Softness, units

0,74

0,68

0,69

Recoverability, units

0,09

0,13

0,12

Absolute strain, units

0,06

0,07

0,06

Hardness, units

2,89

2,76

2,68

Conditional limit of fluidity, Pa/m2

8,33

Structural and mechanical indicators of marmalade mass in the glucose.

Indicators

The time of maturation, min

40

80

100

120

Compressive, J/m3 *10-6

0,50

0,40

0,28

0,16

The Young's Modulus, Pa

0,09

0,10

0,13

0,14

Effective viscosity, Pa*s

0,65

0,62

0,56

0,51

Plasticity, units

0,60

0,65

0,72

0,76

Softness, units

0,56

0,62

0,69

0,73

Recoverability, units

0,24

0,20

0,14

0,12

Absolute strain, units

0,04

0,04

0,04

0,04

Hardness, units

2,23

2,32

2,45

2,55

Conditional limit of fluidity, Pa/m2

6,17

Structural and mechanical indicators of marmalade mass in the fructose.

Indicators

The time of maturation, min

40

80

100

120

Compressive, J/m3 *10-6

0,13

0,09

0,04

0,05

The Young's Modulus, Pa

0,08

0,09

0,11

0,11

Effective viscosity, Pa*s

0,34

0,30

0,23

0,22

Plasticity, units

0,75

0,80

0,86

0,86

Softness, units

0,73

0,77

0,84

0,84

Recoverability, units

0,13

0,10

0,07

0,06

Absolute strain, units

0,03

0,03

0,02

0,02

Hardness, units

2,40

2,42

3,03

3,14

Conditional limit of fluidity, Pa/m2

4,61

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not less important for the gelation of pectin of apples puree is the presence of free acid, which affects the speed of the process and the strength of jelly.

Investigation of the strength of gels with different pH values show that the addition of acid in pectin gels with monosaccharides contributes to their strength. Unlike gel sucrose, for which excess of the optimal amount of the acid softens the structure.

However, the strength of the jelly mass on glucose exceeded the samples on the sucrose and fructose in equal conditions of any acid.

These results provided a basis for improvement of technological schemes of production of fruit marmalade with varieties of sugars and motivate  the ability of using both glucose and fructose in the technology of fruit and berry marmalade, but with changes in the technological process.

The optimal ranges of pH for the formation of structural-mechanical properties were determined. It is established that educated the jelly more stable at low pH, a pH of 3.5 to 3.7, close to the natural pH of the selected fruit and berry raw materials.

Organoleptic indicators of the marmalade mass with reduced amount of sugar.

Organoleptic indicators

The sugar content(in % the amount of sugar the traditional recipe)

A control sample, 100

80

65

50

35

Surface condition

Smooth, glossy

Tack

does not stick

does not stick

slight stickiness

The ease of extraction from the forms

removed

well removed

removed

The ability to retain its shape

good

good

bad

It was established experimentally that the conditions of gelation L-pectin reduce the proportion of sugar without any negative impact on the structure of the marmalade mass.

The sample with reduced to 50% of the prescription amount of white crystalline sugar received the high organoleptic evaluation. Such products are similar to products with traditional recipes and have a smooth glossy surface, do not stick, are well removed from the forms and remain the resulting form in accordance with a predetermined one.

Conclusions

Thus, the carried out researches allow to speak about possibility of using of varieties sugars in technological schemes of fruit and berry marmalade or reduce prescription amount of sucrose and will inform the development of technological schemes of fruit and berry marmalade in puree assortment.

References:

  • 1. Clark, A.H. Structural and mechanical properties of biopolymer gels [Text] / A. H. Clark, S. B. Ross-Murphy // Advances in Polymer Science. – 1987. – Vol. 83. – P. 57–192.
  • 2. De Gennes, P. G. Scalimg Concepts in Polymer Physics [Text] / P. G. De Gennes. – Ithaka, New York : Cornell University press, 1979. – 319 p.
  • 3. Lima, A. M. F. Dynamic light scattering and viscosimetry of aqueous solutions of pectin, sodium alginate and their mixtures: effects of added salt, concentration, counterions, temperature and chelating agent [Text] / A. M. F. Lima, V. Soldi, R. Borsali // Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. – 2008. – Vol. 20, Issue 9. – P. 1705–1714.
  • 4. Overchuk N. Analysis of the quality of fruit and berry puree for the production of marmalade [Text] / N. Overchuk // Food industry. - Kyiv: NUFT, 2015. - P. 46-50.
  • 5. Silva, M. Alginate and pectin composite films crosslinked with Ca2+ ions: Effect of the plasticizer concentration [Text] / M. Silva, A. Cristiane, K. Bierhalz, T. G. Kieckbusch // Carbohydrate Polymers. – 2009. – Vol. 77, Issue 4. – P. 736–742. 
0
Your rating: None Average: 7 (3 votes)
Comments: 8

Adambaev Murat

Интересная работа, где приведенные результаты не вызывают сомнений и предпочитают большую экономическую эффективность

Nataliya Overchuk

Спасибо! Для нас очень важно что Вы оказали доверие результатам нашей работы.

Simonian Geworg

Дорогие украинские коллеги! Хорошая экспериментальная в области пищевова производства, в частности производства фруктово-ягодного мармелада. Успехов в дальнейших работах С увпажением Геворг Саркисович.

Nataliya Overchuk

Благодарим Вас за одобрительный отзыв!

Vladimir Karlov

Уважаемые авторы! По отзывам потребителей конфетного ассортимента (да и производителей), замечено, что мармелад является одним из самых экологически чистых продуктов, чем и актуален ваш доклад. В докладе представлены различные технологии изготовления образцов мармелад массы. Проведено достаточное число экспериментальных исследований, которые, несомненно, должны быть учтены при разработке технологических схем изготовления фруктово-ягодного мармелада. С уважением, В.А. Карлов.

Nataliya Overchuk

Спасибо что оставили ваш комментарий! Планируем не останавливаться на достигнутом, продолжать исследования в связи с актуальностью избранной темы.

Treschalin Michail Yuriyevich

Уважаемые коллеги! Большая, серьезная и нужная работа. Результаты эксперимента сомнений не вызывают. Очевидна экономическая эффективность. Желаю Вам скорейшего внедрения! С уважением М.Ю. Трещалин

Nataliya Overchuk

Благодарим за Ваш комментарий!Продолжаем исследования в данном направлении.
Comments: 8

Adambaev Murat

Интересная работа, где приведенные результаты не вызывают сомнений и предпочитают большую экономическую эффективность

Nataliya Overchuk

Спасибо! Для нас очень важно что Вы оказали доверие результатам нашей работы.

Simonian Geworg

Дорогие украинские коллеги! Хорошая экспериментальная в области пищевова производства, в частности производства фруктово-ягодного мармелада. Успехов в дальнейших работах С увпажением Геворг Саркисович.

Nataliya Overchuk

Благодарим Вас за одобрительный отзыв!

Vladimir Karlov

Уважаемые авторы! По отзывам потребителей конфетного ассортимента (да и производителей), замечено, что мармелад является одним из самых экологически чистых продуктов, чем и актуален ваш доклад. В докладе представлены различные технологии изготовления образцов мармелад массы. Проведено достаточное число экспериментальных исследований, которые, несомненно, должны быть учтены при разработке технологических схем изготовления фруктово-ягодного мармелада. С уважением, В.А. Карлов.

Nataliya Overchuk

Спасибо что оставили ваш комментарий! Планируем не останавливаться на достигнутом, продолжать исследования в связи с актуальностью избранной темы.

Treschalin Michail Yuriyevich

Уважаемые коллеги! Большая, серьезная и нужная работа. Результаты эксперимента сомнений не вызывают. Очевидна экономическая эффективность. Желаю Вам скорейшего внедрения! С уважением М.Ю. Трещалин

Nataliya Overchuk

Благодарим за Ваш комментарий!Продолжаем исследования в данном направлении.
PARTNERS
 
 
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
image
Would you like to know all the news about GISAP project and be up to date of all news from GISAP? Register for free news right now and you will be receiving them on your e-mail right away as soon as they are published on GISAP portal.