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PERFECTION TARIFF POLICY BY NATURAL MONONOLISTES OF THE REPABLIC OF KAZAKSTAN
Zhusanbaeva Alyia Mahtabekovna, magister
Taraz State University named after M.H. Dulaty
На сегодняшний день проблема тарифооброзования является самым актуальным вопросом для населения и как для экономики Казахстана. Так как быстрый темп изменения цен и тарифов на коммунальные услуги на текущий год, (в связи с образованием экономического кризиса и с изменением уровня инфляции) негативно влияет на социально- экономическое положение населения. В связи с этим исследование научно-теоретических и методологических аспектов тарифооброзования на услуги естественных монополистов является одним из самых актуальных направлений научных изысканий для формирования эффективной модели тарифной политики.
В статье рассмотрены теоретические и практические аспекты тарифной политики страны и выявлены недостатки и пути решения этих проблем.
Ключевые слова: монополия, государственные регулирования, тарифная политика.
For present-day day problem of tariff the most actual question for population and as for economy of Kazakhstan. Since quick rate of the prices and tariff change on public facilities for the current year, (in connection with forming the economic crisis and with change rate of inflation) influences negativy on social- economic position of the population. In this connection the investigation of study scientifically-theoretical and methdological aspect tarifes on facilities natural monopolist is one of the the most actual directions of the scientific prospecting for shaping the efficient model tariff politicians.
In article are considered theoretical and practical aspects of tariff policy of country and is revealed defect and way of the decision of these problems.
Keywords: monopoly, government regulations, tariff policy.
For the economy of Kazakhstan still remains not solved the problem of the government regulation of the to natural monopolies activity. Since natural monopolies of Kazakhstan produce the social significant product such as public facilities. So economic problems arized between state, population and subject of natural monopolies require methodological and legal change to this branches. These problems appear in relationship below enumerated factor:
Above stated factors require the improvement of tariff policy and contribution changes in legal base of given branche of the economy.
The Tariff policy is the main key indicator of the government regulation of natural monopolists.
That is why it is important to consider shaping tariff policies in Kazakhstan.
The realization of tariff policies in Kazakhstan is performed with Agensy on Government regulation of natural monopolies and protection to Competence. This Agensy is functioned on base of the law of the republic of Kazakhstan "About Natural monopoly". On 1 January 2011 on in republic exists more than 1000 subjects of natural monopolies of the public branches. Of they are:
- 561 - concern with production of water and sewage system;
- 359 -concern with production electricity and heating systems;
- 151 - pertain the transport branch;
- 44 - pertain to production of the oils and gas and etc.
Here with from branches of the economy enumerated above we shall consider the enterprise public facilities. Since in this sphere much are often appeared economic problems connected with formation tariff.
The System of the tariff regulation of natural monopolists was formed in Kazakhstan in 1991 after disinteration of the Soviet union. Before this time these public enterprise on financing state and all expenses enterprise was covered by state budget. After reception of independence in Kazakhstan these public enterprise were privatized but, remained as government enterprise which is adjusted by state. In 1997-1998y.y. in Kazakhstan was formed new methods of the formation tariff which are identified "expenditure by method". Formation of such method with tariff is formed considering all expenses of the enterprise was founded with low financial standings or unprofitable condition many public enterprise. Since after privatization many enterprises have not been able to bear the condition of market economies. This methods is still used in our country.
But defect of this method pertain: not stimulation attraction of investments, frequent change and increase tariff with change the general consumption enterprise but, also increase the expenses of the consumers on public facilities and etc.
With development of the economic climate of Kazakhstan some subjects to monopolies have impoved its financial standings. In connection with this in sphere of the government regulation of activity of natural monopolies was needed the improvement of the tariff system. After that
in 2002 Agency on Government regulation of natural monopolies and protection to Competitions have developed the program "Tariff politicians on 2002-2004y.y."
2 Methods were designed On base of this program:
• The Determination of profit on the basis of controlled asset;
• The Methods of tariff determination the basis of outrage time;
These methods is successfully used for determination tariff such enterprise as "KAZTRANSOYL" AС - "Kaz Iron road station", "KEGOC" JC, "KAZPOST"AC and etc.
But these methods is founded for determination tariff level on base of the profit. And defect of these methods is that, this methods used only for profitable enterprise. Beside us in Kazakhstan enterprise with low finance by position or bankrot condition for 2010-2011year forms 63% from the gross amount monopoly subject. So these methods not all used.
As well as the main funds these enterprise worn-out on 70 % and requires the constant repair.The Relationship with this expenses enterprise increase but tariffs increase.
That why determination tariff is used in Kazakhstan successfully on base of the expenseses enterprise. For improvement given situations I offer the following offers:
1. Revise the expenses method and change the composition of the expenseses falling into tariffs. Leave in composition tariff only constant expenses but variable to take away and leave for financing enterprise;
2. Attract the foreign investor for improvement of the financial condition and for renovation of the main fund/This offers advantageously share foreign investor since, these enterprise produce the public facilities. In this connection demand for these goods always high/
3. perfect Legal and methodical basis’s tariff politicians.