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PECULIARITIES OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES BY NON-PHILOLOGICAL STUDENTS

PECULIARITIES OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES BY  NON-PHILOLOGICAL STUDENTS
Nataliia HAVRYLIUK, candidate of education, associate professor

Elvira Manzhos, head of the department, candidate of education

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Ukraine

Conference participant

In the article the features of professional training of translation of texts in university are observed. The article proves that translation is one of the skills that is provided for the foreign language. Translation is a necessary condition of students' sufficient communicative competence in professional activities. Analyzes new approaches to the translation of professional texts are analyzed and types of training exercises for translation are listed. The importance of professional text and method of its use in preparing students not philological specialties are revealed.

Analysis of recent research and publications showed that there is current lack of fundamental methodological studies of training interpreters of specialized texts. This is obviously specificity and complexity of translation as a kind of speech activity. Purpose of the article is to reveal the importance of professional text and method of its use in preparing students not philological specialties, to analyze the types of exercises and their feasibility. Some examples of tasks for students to practice the ability to allocate the necessary information in the text are proposed to discuss.

Keywords: teaching translation professional texts institution of higher education, foreign language, professional activities, present exercises for teaching translation, not philological specialties, types of exercises.

 

Learning foreign languages ​​in non-philological specialties is an important aspect of professional and ideological formation of university students and the next link of learning a foreign language at the high school and of the process of lifelong learning a foreign language.

Modern integration processes in Ukraine offer opportunities for students to learn and directly participate in cultural, economic and other global achievements of civilization. That is why it is necessary to study a foreign language as a means of communication that is an important tool for integrating students into the innovation world from professional field of study.

Professional text is the tool or the result of committed linguistic and communicative process that is associated with social and productive professional activity. Working on the text requires professional skills to translate it at first, and one must gain translation skills, so it is necessary to analyze peculiarities of professional texts translation.

Working on special professional texts the lecturer may use multilevel tasks, taking into account different levels of students’ knowledge of the language they continue to study mastering professional terminology at first [1, pp. 42].

Translation of foreign texts includes language skills formation, language skills progress,  reading and translation skills development. 

Students should be given an idea of ​​the language features, of the abstract translation in particular and of the rendering the information using most economic means of the language they study.

Great attention should be paid to the enrichment of vocabulary students’ lexical units.

It means the formation of students’ active and passive lexical units and development the ways how to guess the meaning of unknown lexical units. Thus, in our practice we use professional texts that are thematically selected.

The basis of the specialized text is characterized by science terminology. Terms play a major role in the translation. If there are errors in the translation that lead to substantial deviations in comparison with the original text, then one needs to improve linguistic phenomena of two languages ​​to choose the correct version of the translation and one should have sufficient professional education.

The main difficulties of professional text translation are related to the transfer of the proper content of each phrase, which is not always the literal translation. Translation of professional literature should be accurate; the expressed idea should be concise and clear. Working on  professional texts  is comprehensive using all kinds of speech activity. This is particularly the usage of new grammatical material, performing grammar activities based on lexical units students know, performing activities to learn new lexical units and language phenomena, actualization of learned linguistic material in reading and translation of thematically selected texts and oral responses of students, performing abstract translation, text annotation and evaluation of the information contained in the text.

From separate words understanding students start to clarify the semantic relationshipsbetween them, the content of the sentence as a whole. So, that is necessary to understand the grammatical structure of sentences, recognize morphological word forms, and determine their contextual meaning.

Speech behavior of a foreign language teacher is based not only in possession of speech as a means of communication, but on possession of it as a means to teach others.

Classes that help to teach foreign texts translation consist of the following stages: 1) language skills formation; 2) language skills improvement; 3) reading and translationskills development [2, pp. 18].

As we consider the problem of non-philological students, it is advisable to devote several introductory lessons for theoretical course that would be held parallelly with systematizing and reviewing secondary school language material. This course is aimed at giving to students science and technologylanguage, the translation in general and abstract translation in particular, that is, the kind of consecutive translation, the transfer with the most economical means of another language of the main  content of speech.

The first stage should also indicate ways to translate the most frequent syntax method “from content - to the method of expression”. The focus in the classes for professional texts translation should be paid not to the way students learn by heart but to skills development  to express opinion by  different linguistic means [3, pp. 137].

Introductory theoretical course develops non-philologicalstudents’  not only diverse translation skills, but the style and structure, and culture of the native language (with translation from a foreign language to mother tongue) and one that is studied while translating from foreign into their native language).

Scientists, engineers and students have a well-developed ability to analogy, which, however, is often wrongdue to lack of foreign language knowledge. Wrong analogy is usually found in the translation of "international" words. These are words of Latin or Greek origin that have similar spelling but different meanings in English and Ukrainian languages. “Actual” - in English means "real" but not relevant. “Original” - means "the first one” but not "original". “Progressive” - in most cases means “gradual” but not “progressive” etc. In terms translated from English into Ukrainian students can use such translation techniques as transliteration, tracing, translation - description [4, pp. 8].

Researchers mention three main elements that determine the psychological content of the speech activities related to the translation:

  • -  understanding the original text content;
  • -  understanding the message content and using it to form future expression in a foreign language;
  • -  statement formation and formulation [5].

To teach students to work with professional texts, one should  first teach them to use traditional and innovative methods. Specialdictionaries of particular terminology must be usedto translate professional texts. Students should be familiar with the features of texts with professionalterminology, and namely, with general vocabulary and complex grammatical constructions. In the process of mastering professional text translation reading can act as a means and as a goal of education. Reading is closely connected with the text understanding and is a complex mental process [6, pp. 144]. If the student understands the text, it will be easier to translate it. Particular attention should be paid to important techniques with authentic and original professional texts. The work with the vocabulary plays an important role in reading professional literature.

As methods of working on professional texts we may mention the substitution, combination, emphasizing the necessary information [7, pp. 18].

We also use tasks aimed at developing such skills as the ability to work with a lexical unit that has several meanings, the ability to define meanings of words, synonyms and its usage in the language, the ability to decipher the meaning finding  antonyms of the lexical unit, the ability to describe the meaning of the word.  If there is no exact translation of it, then there is the ability to work with lexical unit using context; the ability to choose the right lexical unit, the ability to understand the lexical unit of structural word elements [5, pp. 165].

The main types of exercises that form the translation skills of students while working on professional texts are the following:

  • -  exercises to identify essentials elements (primary or secondary information, listing the basic concepts and keywords);
  • - exercises for the ability to mobilize existing subject knowledge (drawing diagrams of the main concepts of the relationship between them, creating major terminological concepts);
  • - exercises to develop searching skills and identifications (the correct choice of derivatives, synonyms, antonyms);
  • -  exercises to guess meanings ​​of unknown lexical units;
  • -   exercises on the translation skills to transfer meanings of ​​lexical units into the original language;
  • -  exercises to develop contextual meanings, forecasting;
  • -  exercises to recognize logical and semantic combinations;
  • -  exercises on the skills and abilities to transfer  grammatical structures and phenomena.

When performing exercises the students enrich their vocabulary with terms that are essential for professional texts translation. So, before starting to translate professional texts it is necessary to know texts peculiarities because they usually contain many complex structures, specialized terms,abbreviations and acronymsthat create serious difficultiesnot only for studentsbut also for experienced professional interpretors.

Learning a foreign language we use the system of exercises proposed A. Gaponov [8].  The scholar offers several examples of tasks for students to practice the ability to highlight the necessary information in the text:

  • -  among the listed titles write down those that are thematically related to....
    -  among the selected titles write down those relating to the problem ....
    -  read summaries of texts / articles and  titles  then  write the title of the source dedicated to a concrete aspect.

The task for the students to develop the ability to summarize the text information:

  • -  determine which of the headings reflects the content of the text;
  • -  read the text and choose the statements that  reflect its content (we may offer phrases that convey semantic content of some blocks of the given text).

Exercises to develop the ability to relate parts of the text:

  • -  write down the following sentences or numbers in the sequences that convey the logic presentation of the article;
  • -  which of these phrases could be included into the article. Choose the most appropriate location for each sentence. (The following sentences have the character of conclusions, summaries, evaluations or interpretations).

Exercises to develop the ability to draw conclusions based on the received information:

  • -  choose expressions that describe importance of notions highlighted in the article.

Exercises to develop the ability to evaluate the information:

  • -  the information in the given article received several  evaluations by  experts. These estimates are different. One that gives the most complete picture of the practical / theoretical significance of the information fits your abstract translation.

Exercises to develop the ability to interpret the information:

  • -  the content of some paragraphs of any text may not be clear to English speaking staff of the company where you work. If it is necessary then add explanations, using the most suitable notion among the proposed.

Exercises to develop the ability to plan the formulation of written expressions. The goal is to create an installation to use non-verbal, verbal and graphic and verbal-linguistic means of fixing the key content of the read information and thus to develop the ability to form text stereotype, that is implemented in the context of the written text. Examples:

  • -  draw a layout of the described device;
  • -  choose one of the given  graphic plans that fits to the logic of the presentation of the given article;
  • -  write down the plan of the article.

Exercises to provide practice of various kinds of translation: complete, abstract and annotative:

  • -          complete the translation of the article;
  • -           read the translation of that article, made by students of your group;
  • -           choose the one that most accurately conveys the content;
  • -           compare the chosen variant with your own one and do stylistic analysis;
  • -           prepare an annotative translation of the article;
  • -           compare your version of the translation with the proposed one;
  • -           choose the translation that fits more the original text.

Studying translation peculiarities of professional texts and analyzing the learning process convince the prospects of further research exercises that contribute to the improvement of the system of teaching students to translate professional texts.

Teaching a foreign language to non-philological students requires focus and effort in reading and translation of literature on specialty. Reading and translation are necessary activities to gain sufficient levels of communicative competence in their professional fields.

 

References:

  • 1. Коновалова Л. Формувати фахову компетентність разом із життєвою (Різнорівневі завдання за професійним спрямуванням у процесі вивчення англійської мови у вищих навчальних закладах І-ІІ рівнів акредитації ) / Л. Коновалова // Іноземні мови в навчальних закладах. – 2011. - №1. – С. 42-47.
  • 2. Пособие по переводу технической литературы (англ. язык) / [Бархударов Л. С., Жукова Д. И., Квасюк И. Д., Швейцер Л. Д.] – М.: Высшая школа, 1967. – 282 с.
  • 3. Малюська З.В.  Навчання перекладу фахових текстів у немовному вищому навчальному закладі /  З.В. Малюська  // Вісник Житомирського державного університету імені Івана Франка. Серія : Філологічні науки: [зб. наук. пр.]. – Житомир: ЖДУ, 2009. – Вип. 46. – С. 137-140.
  • 4.  Медникова Е.М. Значение слова и метод его описания. /Е.М . Медникова  – М.: Высшая школа, 1974. – 202c.
  • 5. Зимняя И.А. Психологический анализ перевода как вида речевой деятельности / И.А. Зимняя // Сб. науч. тр. МГПИИЯ им. М. Тореза, 1978. – Вып. 127. – С. 37-49.
  • 6. Барабанова Г. В. Методика навчання професійно-орієнтованого читання у немовному ВНЗ / Г. В. Барабанова. – К. : Фірма “ІНКОС”, 2005. – 315 с.
  • 7. Degtyariova Y. Reading-Focused Instruction Programme for University Students of Business English in Ukraine / Y. Degtyariova // Business Issues. – 2003. – No. 3. – Р. 17-20.
  • 8. Гапонов Ю.А. Система вправ для навчання студентів-філологів перекладу галузевої літератури / Ю.А. Гапонов електронний ресурс. – Режим доступу: http://www.stattionline.org.ua/filologiya/87/15735-sistema-vprav-dlya-navchannya-studentiv-filologiv-pismovogo-perekladu-galuzevo%D1%97-literaturi.html
Comments: 5

Suyunchaliyeva Maiya

Уважаемый автор! Спасибо за содержательную статью. Тема весьма актуальна, желаю удачи и успехов в вашей деятельности С уважением, Суюнчалиева М.М.

Kubanov Ruslan

Уважаемые авторы! Статья актуальна. Подходы к переводу профессиональных текстов, виды тренировочных упражнений для перевода вызывают интерес. Успехов Вам в дальнейшей научной работе. С уважением, Кубанов Р. А.

Mucomel Svetlana

Уважаемые авторы! Спасибо за интересную статью! Удачи Вам и успехов в работе! С уважением Светлана Мукомел, Людмила Мохнар, Николай Фомич

Sanosyan Khachatur Avetis

Уважаемые авторы. Вами исследуется актуальная проблема. Однозначно, что "Основные трудности перевода профессионального текста связаны с передачей правильного содержания каждой фразы, что не всегда дословный перевод. Перевод профессиональной литературы должна быть точной; выраженная идея должна быть четкой и ясной. Работая над профессиональными текстами носит комплексный характер с использованием всех видов речевой деятельности. В частности, это использование нового грамматического материала,.." Вопросы подготовки специалистов-переводчиков Вами решаются. Спасибо за освещение проблемы. С уважением, Х. А. Саносян

Sanosyan Khachatur Avetis

Уважаемые авторы. Вами исследуется актуальная проблема. Однозначно, что "Основные трудности перевода профессионального текста связаны с передачей правильного содержания каждой фразы, что не всегда дословный перевод. Перевод профессиональной литературы должна быть точной; выраженная идея должна быть четкой и ясной. Работая над профессиональными текстами носит комплексный характер с использованием всех видов речевой деятельности. В частности, это использование нового грамматического материала,.." Вопросы подготовки специалистов-переводчиков Вами решаются. Спасибо за освещение проблемы. С уважением, Х. А. Саносян
Comments: 5

Suyunchaliyeva Maiya

Уважаемый автор! Спасибо за содержательную статью. Тема весьма актуальна, желаю удачи и успехов в вашей деятельности С уважением, Суюнчалиева М.М.

Kubanov Ruslan

Уважаемые авторы! Статья актуальна. Подходы к переводу профессиональных текстов, виды тренировочных упражнений для перевода вызывают интерес. Успехов Вам в дальнейшей научной работе. С уважением, Кубанов Р. А.

Mucomel Svetlana

Уважаемые авторы! Спасибо за интересную статью! Удачи Вам и успехов в работе! С уважением Светлана Мукомел, Людмила Мохнар, Николай Фомич

Sanosyan Khachatur Avetis

Уважаемые авторы. Вами исследуется актуальная проблема. Однозначно, что "Основные трудности перевода профессионального текста связаны с передачей правильного содержания каждой фразы, что не всегда дословный перевод. Перевод профессиональной литературы должна быть точной; выраженная идея должна быть четкой и ясной. Работая над профессиональными текстами носит комплексный характер с использованием всех видов речевой деятельности. В частности, это использование нового грамматического материала,.." Вопросы подготовки специалистов-переводчиков Вами решаются. Спасибо за освещение проблемы. С уважением, Х. А. Саносян

Sanosyan Khachatur Avetis

Уважаемые авторы. Вами исследуется актуальная проблема. Однозначно, что "Основные трудности перевода профессионального текста связаны с передачей правильного содержания каждой фразы, что не всегда дословный перевод. Перевод профессиональной литературы должна быть точной; выраженная идея должна быть четкой и ясной. Работая над профессиональными текстами носит комплексный характер с использованием всех видов речевой деятельности. В частности, это использование нового грамматического материала,.." Вопросы подготовки специалистов-переводчиков Вами решаются. Спасибо за освещение проблемы. С уважением, Х. А. Саносян
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