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NANOECONOMIC FACTOR IN ECONOMIC DYNAMICS IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS
Tetiana Filiakova, postgraduate
V. N. Karazin Kharkiv national university
В данной статье раскрывается роль и место наноэкономического фактора в экономической динамике в контексте глобального экономического кризиса.
Ключевые слова: антропологический фактор, глобальный экономический кризис, наноэкономика, наноэкономический фактор.
This article reveals the role and place of the nanoeconomic factor in the economic dynamics in the context of the global economic crisis.
Keywords: anthropological factor, the global economic crisis, nanoeconomics, nanoeconomic factor.
There are some problems in the economic theory the significance of which is recognized by majority of economists, but which, nevertheless, for a long times, have not been solved successfully. One of these problems is associated with the contradiction between the widespread dogma of omnipotent rational economic actors capable to solve tasks of any complexity and the behavior of the real man, quite different from the rational counterpart. In particular, this contradiction manifests itself in the comparison of the theory and practice of individual consumer choice: a real consumer with his limited computing analytical capabilities makes his choice differently from a rational man-machine which is described by a standard mathematical model of individual consumer choice .
At the same time one of the most significant factors affecting the current economic reality is the crisis which belongs to the class of the structure. Covering various aspects of the society, it entered an anthropological level, which is not always taken into account by its modern globalism creating its macro social models . Also indisputable is the fact of rapid development, dissemination and implementation of nanotechnology. The nanotechnological industry is a very promising field of science and technology that can significantly reduce the cost and accelerate production. Though the equipment for production is getting smaller in scale, there is almost no need for manual labor, which is also reflected in the reduction of the output cost. This formulation of the problem determines the need of the radical modernization, understanding and solving problems of the economic dynamics with the development of human resources and distribution of nanotechnology.
Many authors have dedicated their work to the issue of nanoeconomic problems. For the first time, the word “nanoeconomics” was proposed in 1987 by the American economist K.J.Errow, who was Nobel prize winner in economy in 1972 for “the pioneering contribution into general equilibrium and welfare theory”. Among Russian researchers the first who addressed this problem was G.Kleiner, who considered nanoeconomics as an appropriate part of economic theory.
N.A.Ananieva justifies the need to solve a number of contemporary social and psychological problems from the perspective of an anthropological orientation. V.I.Maevskii deals with the real and the rational consumer behavior. S.Shekshnia examines modern methods of personnel management. R. Lucas analyzes the issues of the nanoeconomic theory from the perspective of single transaction. O. Inshakov considers nanoeconomics as the synthesis of economics and genetics. T.A.Lyubimov argues for the importance of an economy based on knowledge, the study of the theory of economic behavior of individual economic agents, as opposed to the traditional neoclassical paradigm that distinguishes the levels of micro-and macroeconomics.
The investigation of nanoeconomic issues includes a number of works whose athors do not directly use the term nanoeconomics and attributed their works to such fields as microeconomics, management, sociology, etc. But, nevetherless, they investigated the questions, which a lot of researchers refer to the level of nanoeconomics: the behavior of managers, general managers, individual consumers. They are, in particular, the works of such Nobel Prizes winners as G.Bekker, D.Kaneman, V.Smith, A.Tversky. The overview of the main directions and results of the study of the "economic man" can be found in the works of Avtonomov. The works of D.Engel, R.Blekyel, P.Miniard are devoted to the study of the consumer behavior. G.M.Rosinskaja is conserned with the economic behavior of consumers the essence of which was disclosed by G.Bekker.
The realities of the modern world are such that the major trends of our times are characterized by the rapid rates of today's economic dynamics, due to certain innovative breakthroughs, as well as the views of scientists are focused on an anthropological nature.
This approach makes it possible tо consider modern world economic system as follows: it's a multilevel system involving interactions and complementaries, the fibers of which are mega-, macro-, meso-, microeconomics, and the kernel is nanoeconomics as the relation between nanosubject. A number of scholars, such as G.Kleiner and K.Errow believe that the identification of the level of the individual worker and firm-level and enterprises (micro level) is not correct, and to prove it they give the arguments of supporters of microeconomic analysis, which a priori analyzes a large enterprise as an individual man, and prescribe the characteristics of an individual man to this kind of enterprise. For example, in the textbook on microeconomics Pindajk and Rubinfeld noted that the economics fell into two main areas: microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics conciders the activities of individual economic agents, which are customers, employees, investors, landowners, businesses. Though such very different economic actors are marked with "comma", that is as homogeneous entities, which they are not due to the fact that workers are physically and ideologically inseparable as an individual and a company – as the staff, is the entity of such individuals. [3, С.22].
If we analyze the structure of the global capital including the "shadow" capital, it appears that the bulk of money is earned at work which is not conductive to social progress. These are the areas of polluting technologies, financing speculations, bureaucratic barriers, fines, corruption, racketeering, defective products, drug and arms trafficking, casinos and gambling, promotion of unrestrained consumption and unhealthy needs, etc. And the whole chain of previous economic relationships has led the world to crisis, a crisis of the speculative model of the economy (its overheated stock and other asset markets ultimately has led to their collapse). How could we get out of this kind of addiction, how to reach such point in the economic dynamics which would provide a way out of the crisis of society? The solution is in transition to the new information, human directional, socio-humanitarian society based on an innovative path of development. The world is interconnected and interdependent. The development of the nanotechnology sector will affect the structure of the economy: the manufacturing facilities have become so compact and safe that they can be placed where their products are needed, but not where it is dictated by various constraints of the production process. From this it follows that there is a new way of the global economy as the replacement to the current structure based on rationality named nanoeconomy based on the relationships that arise between people on the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of nano-objects. Today all economic calculations are based on the principle of linearity for the simplification and standartisation of the model, but the economy is becoming increasingly nonlinear. Technological progress is affected by its speed variability. So, for example, technical and technological developments become obsolete almost every day with the emergence of newer, improved models. Today the opprotunity to talk and see each other over thousands of kilometers away is not surprising, although few decades ago it seemed impossible. With the development of nanotechnology nanoobjects which will define a new model of economic relations have arisen occuring on their production, distribution, exchange and consuption. Nanotechnology will define major new series; will play an increasing role in economic dynamics, so they should be considered as a factor in economic dynamics. And those who are in their enterprises begin to build a production using nanotechnology, taking into account the specifics of these nano productive forces and they will become leaders in the new nanoeconomy.
In the present-day situation to prevent the development of the crisis and to address major economic problems it is needed to implement deep structural reforms, otherwise the risk of maintaining low rates of economic growth over the next decade will be high.
With the development of nanotechnology arises a new, unknown microcosm with its nano-objects, which will lead to new economic relations. Nanoeconomic becomes a key factor in the implementation of the existing development models. In this connection there is need to integrate the nanoekonomic factor into the system of factors of economic dynamics and focus the attention on the nanoeconomic level.