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Baku State University, Azerbaijan
Championship participant: the National Research Analytics Championship - "Azerbaijan";
the Open European-Asian Research Analytics Championship;
Keywords: natural disasters, clobal climatis chance, economy, agriculture
Baku city is situated in the south-west of the Absheron peninsula on the coast of the Baku bay, its territory is 2,13 thousand km2 and the architecture of the city looks like amphitheatre step-by-step falling to the Baku bay. The 2/3 of the republic population live in Baku.
Baku is situated in the eastern part of the Caspian Sea and the geological structure of the city territory, the global climatic changes happened in the world, the risen man-made changes cause a lot of natural disasters in the city. The disasters happened in several years damage the city economy and cause the destructions and even human death. Baku is the city where highly-developed economical, transport, scientific and cultural infrastructures situated and the protection measures against the natural disasters happening in Baku must be done systematically and planly. Accordingly, eartquakes, landslides, severe frosts and other natural disasters damaging the city economy and population happening in concrete areas, the economic damages to industry, their intensity, the destroying force must be studied and taken into consideration in territorial organization of economy.
The number of great natural disasters happened in Baku and in the result the economical damages to urban industry have been recently observed.
One of the natural disasters destroying city industry and damaging the great areas in Baku is landslides. The landslides more spread in the city areas as Bayil, Zig, Binagady, Ahmadly and others.
The frequency of landslides in Baku as a result of natural and man-made factors have been recently intensified.
The Bayil landslide in Baku is considered to be the most harmful landslides in the history. In the result of the Bayil landslide in Baku happened in March, 2000 private houses, industrial promises, different industrial projects destroyed and the harm in the sum of 50 million USD was made to the state.
During the last three years the construction works made in Zig and Ahmadly areas the landslide factor weren’t considered and as a result some high-storeyed buildings, private houses became unfitness and their habitants were moved.
In order to prevent the landslides in Baku the slide zones must be studied and the protection measures must be held regularly. According to world practice the protection engineering works must be carried and the landslide areas should be changed into forestal resort centers.
Baku is situated in a dangerous seismic zone and the existence of strong earthquakes in the city area is great. Particularly, the eartquakes happened in 1847 and 2000 caused the great destructions in Baku and suburbs. In the result of the earthquake happened on the 26 of October in 2000, about 1500 buildings were variously damaged and 600 houses became unfitness.
In the case of intensive appropriateness of the territory of Baku there is a great probability in destroying the country economy and human losses by earthquakes. It is impossible to predict the time and concrete place of a earthquake. In this cause, it must be considered that Baku is situated in the 8-9 scored earthquake zone and the buildings must be constructed in these accordance. Though the severe frosts aren’t observed in Baku, in 2012 from January 27 to February 13 the weather in the city was inconstant, frosty and snowy, strong north-western wind blew, some days was stormy and the roads were icy.
The coldest February in Baku was observed in 1954 and at that time the weather was frosty with the average temperature of -7C. It was 5-6 degree lower than normal. The lowest temperature was registered in 1969 on February 9-10. At that time the temperature in Baku was 9,6 C frosty. In 2012 on February 8 the much lowest temperature for the last 110 years was registered as 11C frosty. In connection with the sharp changing of the weather, the covering of the roads with ice caused some problems such as stopping the transport, the existing of emergency and long jams and the difficulties in utility.
In Baku besides the noted natural disasters, in separate years such disasters as rainfalls, strong winds, the level hesitations of the Caspian Sea and mud volcanoes also damaged the urban industry. Differently from above-mentioned natural disasters these happen very rarely. In spite of this, every natural disaster noted in urban industry must be noted. It would be better if the Ministry of Extraordinary Circumstances organised Baku city structure division. In this structure the intensity of natural disasters, the amount of their damages and others should be determined and the basic protection measures against them must be carried out.
In the result of analyses held in Baku it was cleared that, in the case of natural disasters happened very often or with long breaks all spheres of the urban industry face to great economic damages and human lives face to dangers.
Taking into consideration all these, the urban industry must be ready to expecting natural disasters in Baku.