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SEEDING RATE OF CANOLA IN CULTIVATING SEEDS

Автор Доклада: 
Koshkarov N.B.
Награда: 
SEEDING RATE OF CANOLA IN CULTIVATING SEEDS

SEEDING RATE OF CANOLA IN CULTIVATING SEEDS

Koshkarov Nurgali Buteshevich, candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor
S.Sejfullin's name Kazakh Agrotechnical University

In the article, the consideration of optimum seeding rates of canola. 

It is established that, in the meadow gray soils of optimum seeding rate of canola seed is 4.0-4.5 quintal/hectare.
At that rate of sowing the seed yield of canola 24,0-24,2 quintal/hectare.
Key words: canola, rate, seeding, shoots, preserve, plants, blossoming, ripening, seeds, harvest.

Canola is an oil-plant. Canola seeds contain 32-50% of oil. The area of cultivation of this crop accounts for 13-14 million hectares.

In Central Asia canola is not widely distributed though it has a feeding value and it is a perfect crop because in spring it gains a great number of verdurous masses.

In south regions of Central Asia canola is cultivated as a neutral crop. It is sowed in October when fields become free from staple crops. Next spring in March-April canola gives 400-500 quintals/hectares of verdurous masses and 120-160 quintal/hectares of stubble remains and root remains which improve water and physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil. It means that the cropping of canola plays a significant role in the fertility of the soil and satisfaction of needs of the population in a cheap and ecological vegetable oil.

An optimal thickness of plant standing is of great importance in raising the level of canolaseeds.

Here we conducted experiments with the meadow graydesert soil.

The seeding rate of canola seeds was tested.

The scheme of the experiment

Variants

Seeding rate

thousand/hectare

kilogram/hectare

1

800

4.0

2

900

4.5

3

1000

5.0

4

1100

5.5

5

1200

6.0

6

1400

7.0

Repeatability of experiment is fivefold

Row-spacing – 60 cm

Early ripening variety “Sovga” was seeded

Date of sowing October 15

Dynamics of canola shoots

A different seeding rate of canola seeds had a major impact on the thickness of plant standing. A direct relation of plant standing with seeding rate is revealed. And as of October 1 within 3 years at the average with a seeding rate of seeds 4.0 kilogram/hectare we got 743 thousand/hectare of shoots, with the seeding rate of seeds 6.0 kilogram/hectare we got 1045 thousand/hectare of shoots. It should be noted that with an increasing in the seeding rate the total amount of plants will raise but regarding the seeding rate the amount will decrease. For instance, in the variant with the seeding rate 4 kilogram/hectare we get 92.2% of shoots but with the seeding rate 6.0 kilogram/hectare – 87.1%.

Table 1 – the amount of shootings, percent of preserved plants in spring

(the average in 3 years)

№of variants

Number of shoots appeared

Number of preserved plants

Thickness of plant standing before harvest

 

1/XI

15/XI

10/III

15/V

thousand /hectare

%

thousand /hectare

%

thousand/hectare

%

1

743

92.2

749

93.6

737

98.4

727

98.5

2

840

93.4

849

94.4

838

98.7

824

97.9

3

905

93.5

940

94.0

916

97.4

886

96.6

4

985

89.6

1006

91.5

975

96.0

947

96.8

5

1045

87.1

1063

88.5

1005

94.6

964

94.0

6

1281

91.5

1275

91.1

1161

91.2

1060

89.1

The recording of plants shows that the number of them increased in comparison with the previous observation and in compliance with the variants this number accounted for 749 thousand/hectare and 1275 thousand/hectare.

The observations which were conducted in spring (March 10) according to all variants indicate a rather high preservation of plants after overwinter survival.

If 98.4% of plants were preserved with the seeding rate 4.5 kilogram/hectare, the number of preserved plants accounted for 91.2-98.7% respectively with the seeding rate from 4.5 kilogram/hectare to 7.9 kilogram/hectare.

Growth and development of canola

The result of observations showed that the growth and the development of canola are directly connected with the thickness of a plant standing. The recording conducted every 10 days showed that as of March 10 with the seeding rate of 4 kilogram the height of the plants was 34 centimeters while with the seeding rate of 7 kilogram/hectare it accounted for 22 centimeters. Notably the difference in height was substantial – 12 centimeters.

Further the differences of plant`s growth between the variants became stronger.  As of April 20 with the seeding rate of 4 kilogram/hectare the height of the plant was 151 cm this factor accounted for 65 cm with the seeding rate of 7 kilogram/hectare.  Notably the height of the plants became depressed when the seeding rate increased.  The plants in this variant in comparison with a lower seeding rate (variant 1) fell behind with 86 cm.

As of May 1 the observations show that during the period between the previous observations in all variants of experiments the growth of plants was slight that fact can be explained by natural completion of the growth of plants (table 2).

Variants

Height of plants

10.III

20.III

1.1V

10.1V

20.1V

1.V

1

34

57

91

133

151

157

2

33

53

87

131

145

151

3

32

48

78

119

131

135

4

30

45

70

100

115

117

5

28

43

65

88

94

96

6

22

35

47

64

65

68

Dynamics of canola blossoming and ripening

The observations of the canola blossoming and ripening showed that plants started blossoming by March 20 in the variants with a low seeding rate. So with the seeding rate of 4 kilogram/hectare 7% of the plants broke in bloom and with the seeding rate of 4.5 kilogram/hectare this number accounted for 3%. By April 10 the number of blossomed plants with the seeding rate of 4 kilogram/hectare accounted for 85%, 53% - with the seeding rate of 6.0 kilogram/hectare but when the seeding rate rose by 7.0 kilogram/hectare only 8% of plants blossomed. In 100% plants blossoming in the variants with the seeding rate 4.0-4.5 kilogram/hectare and 6.0-7.0 kilogram/hectare the number of blossomed plants reached 70% and 26% respectively (table 3).

Table 3 - Dynamics of canola blossoming and ripening

(The average in 3 years)

Variants

Blossoming, %

Ripening, %

20.03

01.04

10.04

20.04

01.05

10.05

15.05

1

7

42

85

100

41

93

100

2

3

35

82

100

34

86

100

3

1

27

70

90

26

80

86

4

-

20

62

82

21

64

81

5

-

8

53

70

12

52

56

6

-

-

8

26

-

16

22

The seeding rate had a major impact on the time of the ripening of canola seeds. By May 1 12% of plants ripened in the variant 2 with the seeding rate of 4.0-4.5 kilogram/hectare for 41 and 34% and in the variants with the seeding rate of 6.0 kilogram/hectare while with the seeding rate of 7.0 kilogram/hectare canola hasn’t ripened yet. In 100% of canola ripening under low seeding rate by May 15 the percent of ripening with the seeding rate of 6 kilogram/hectare was 56%, and with 7 kilogram/hectare – 22% only.   Therefore a smaller thickness of plants standing promotes a faster coming of blossoming phase and the phase of plants ripening.

Yield of canola seeds

One of the aspects which define crop is an optimal thickness of plants standing. In our experiment the largest harvest of canola seeds is in the variant with the seeding rate of 4.0-4.5 kilogram/hectare and 24.0-24.2 kilogram/hectare. The growth of the seeding rate by 6 kilogram/hectare and especially by 7 kilogram/hectare did not promote the growth of crop-producing power of canola seeds but decreased this power by 13.4 and 5.9 kilogram/hectare respectively.

Table 4 - Yield of canola seeds

Variants

Seeding rate

Yield of canola seeds

thousand/hectare

kilogram/hectare

quintal/hectare

%

1

800

4.0

24.0

100.0

2

900

4.5

24.2

100.8

3

1000

5.0

20.4

85.0

4

1100

5.5

16.4

68.3

5

1200

6.0

13.4

55.8

6

1400

7.0

5.9

24.5

Apparently this can be explained by the growth of the thickness of plants standing with the seeding rate of 6 and 7 quintal/hectare that leads to a strong mutual depression of plants and in the final analysis - to a decrease in yield of canola seeds.

In terms of the meadow graydesert soil excessive increases of the thickness of canola standing 1200 thousand/hectare-1400 thousand/hectare can result in a strong mutual depression of plants.

The optimal thickness of canola standing which can be provided by the seeding rate of 4.0-4.5 kilogram/hectare is necessary for a usual canola and plants` growth.

With such a seeding rate yield of canola seeds accounts for 24.0-24.2 quintal/hectare.

References:

  • 1. Romanov H. - Cultivation of fodder crops on irrigated lands. Tashkent. 1986.
  • 2. Gabdilov AM - Increasing the productivity of intercropping. M., 1965.
  • 3. Sorokin, MA, N. Safiullin - Receptions increasing the yield of fodder crop rotations of the wedge. Year-round use of irrigated land. Tashkent, 1981.
  • 4. Yaroslavsky NI Growing canola seeds spring to cattle and poultry breeding. Yaroslavl, 1985.
  • 5. The cultivation of canola seed in the Altai region. Barnaul, 1986.
  • 6. Gortlevsky AA Makeev, VA - Winter canola. M., 1983.
  • 7. Jean-Blain K Glizar M. - The role of canola in food animals. M., 1977.
  • 8.Baybusenov KS - Protection from canola seedlings phytophagous - guarantee a high yield (Kazakh). MATERIALS Republican scientific-theoretical conference "Reading Seyfullinskie-7" Volume 1, Part 1. Astana 2011.
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