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CULTIVATING LOTUS CORNICULATUS L. IN THE IRRIGATION CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH-EAST PAST OF KAZAKHSTAN

Автор Доклада: 
Aubakirov K., Zholamanov K., Yerzhanova K.
Награда: 
CULTIVATING LOTUS CORNICULATUS L. IN THE IRRIGATION CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH-EAST PAST OF KAZAKHSTAN

УДК 633.71;631.5.

CULTIVATING LOTUS CORNICULATUS L. IN THE IRRIGATION CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH-EAST PAST OF KAZAKHSTAN

Kuantay Aubakirov, Doctor in agricultural sciences, Full Professor of Agronomics
Kuanysh Zholamanov, Candidate (Ph. D) Agricultural sciences, Associate Professor of Agronomics
Kenzhe Yerzhanova, Candidate in Agricultural sciences, Associate Professor of Agronomics
Kazakh National agrarian university, Almaty, Kazakhstan

 

In article the data about some agro technical receptions of cultivation Lotus corniculatus L. horned in the conditions of an irrigation of a foothill zone of the southeast of Kazakhstan. It is established that the greatest productivity of pasturable weight Lotus corniculatus L.  horned in the sum of 662,1 ts/hectares has been received for years of researches at an ordinary way of crops and norm of seeding of 6 million piece / hectare.
Keywords:Lotus corniculatus L., way of crops, norms of seeding of seeds, field standing, green weight, fodder units.

The fodder potential of haymaking and pastures of Kazakhstan substantially depends on natural features of landscapes for which they are dated. The basic consequence of changing ecological conditions and economic activities of the person is amplifying process of degradation of pastures and haymaking therefore efficiency fodder manufacture low, security of animal industries forages remains low and unbalanced.

One of the basic signs of degradation of pastures is them knock downing, shown in replacement of valuable kinds of plants on weed and not eaten, productivity reduction, restriction of seasons of use.

Perspective direction in system of increase of efficiency of fodder grounds of republic and the increase in vegetative protein, is use of biological features of plants.

The increase in vegetative protein entirely depends on expansion of crops on arable lands of long-term bean grasses. The most effective way of replenishment of missing fodder protein for animals is also introduction in manufacture of new perspective forage crops. One of such the high protein plants is the long-term bean grass Lotus corniculatus L. horned. This grass delivered to Kazakhstan in 70th years of last century also has proved as one of perspective bean grasses possessing valuable and useful qualities [1, 2, 3].

The wide circulation Lotus corniculatus L. horned in Kazakhstan has occurred thanks to a complex of its such economic-valuable signs as longevity (till 10-12 years), high winter hardiness, not insistence to soils, good aftergrowing after moving or grazing and that is especially important to maintain ability flooding by thawed snow (till 20 days and more). Lotus corniculatus L. horned well eat all kinds of cattle, especially its hay, and also green weight to a flowering phase. Feed  the stern from it doesn't cause in animals blistering and meteoring. In Kazakhstan it has proved also as one of rather perspective bean grasses possessing useful and valuable qualities at improvement of aspics inundated and estuaries of haymaking the Kazakhstan .

In sowing grass mixture the given culture has appeared the steadiest among bean grasses, well transfers intensive grazing pastures cattle and doesn't reduce productivity within 8-10 years. However in Kazakhstan in conditions irrigation this culture isn't studied, though is rather perspective fodder culture for creation on the irrigated earths of cultural pastures and haymaking. Therefore working out ecologically adaptive technology cultivation Lotus corniculatus L.  horned on seeds and a forage in these conditions will promote its wide introduction in manufacture [3, 4].

In the conditions of an irrigation of a foothill zone of Almaty area researches were conducted in an training-pilot farm of KazNAU in 2006-2008 on studying of norms and ways of crops of seeds Lotus corniculatus L. horned on productivity of pasturetraining weight.

Table 1 – Influence of ways of crops and norms of seeding of seeds Lotus corniculatus L. horned on field standing (2006)

Experience variant

Field standing

Way of crops

Norms of seeding of seeds of million / hectare piece

Pieces, м2

%

The private soldier

(15 sm)

12,0

9,0

6,0

3,0

528,0

398,5

291,5

160,5

44,0

44,3

48,6

53,5

Broad row (30 sm)

12,0

9,0

6,0

3,0

489,5

354,5

258,5

147,5

40,8

39,4

43,1

49,2

Broad row (45 sm)

12,0

9,0

6,0

3,0

349,7

256,7

194,8

151,0

38,9

42,8

43,3

50,3

According to our researches, in the spring Lotus corniculatus L. gets under way in growth at daily average temperature of air +4-60С. Lotus corniculatus L. horned it is possible to grow up on meadowo-chestnut soil with rather close deposition ground waters (1,5-2). Soils of skilled site UPF "Agrouniversity" heavy loam with the maintenance of a humus of 1,44-2,45 % (in a layer of 0-30 sm). Optimum reaction of soil рН 6,7-7,1. Results field standing by variants (table 1) are more low resulted.

Depending on ways and norms of seeding of seeds field standing Lotus corniculatus L. was within 38,9-53,5 %. High standing seeds hectare piece (53,5 %) was marked on ordinary crops with norm of 3 million. The lowest standing (38,9 %) isn’t on broad row (45 sm) crops with the raised norm of seeding.

This grass of summer type of development. A bush at it fall to piece, stalks average or thin, soft. On pasturable use mowed down at height of a stalk 20-25 bushing of stalks depending on norm of crops in continuous crops 3-7 pieces, broad row 12-35 pieces Stalks well and in regular intervals leaf formationsee. Leaves brightly green also aren't showered at drying.

In the first year of life Lotus corniculatus L. the horned was mowed down by two times. After harvesting the kidneys which have got under way in growth of a zone tillering were in a kind of the truncated runaways or wintering kidneys. In such condition Lotus corniculatus L. the horned has left on rewintering.

Data on a crop of pasturable green weight in 2006 has shown that on an irrigated site at maintenance of crops with a moisture, Lotus corniculatus L. the horned quite good crop forms in the first year of crops. In the first hay crop the crop of pasturable green weight was within 48,4-57,6 ts/hectares.

Table 2 – the Crop of pasturable weight in experience on studying of ways of crops and norms of seeding of seeds Lotus corniculatus L. horned (2006-2008)

Experience variant

Green weight and fodder units, ts/hectare

Ways of crops

Norms of seeding of million/sht hectare

2006

2007

2008

g/w

f.u.

g/w

f.u.

g/w

f.u.

The private soldier

(15 см)

12,0

9,0 (к)

6,0

3,0

94,0

98,5

101,7

95,9

29,0

30,3

31,4

29,6

501,8

578,6

637,4

519,8

152,2

175,2

192,8

157,5

608,9

652,0

662,1

647,6

183,2

196,5

199,7

195,1

Broad row (30 см)

12,0

9,0

6,0

3,0

87,9

91,6

92,2

90,0

27,1

27,9

28,4

27,8

467,2

471,1

492,3

471,4

142,7

143,0

149,3

142,8

568,0

578,8

591,2

569,2

171,9

174,3

178,0

171,4

Broad row (45 см)

12,0

9,0

6,0

3,0

87,0

91,7

92,4

89,3

26,9

28,3

28,5

27,5

442,7

446,1

425,7

419,2

134,2

135,3

129,0

127,1

549,6

555,2

540,8

525,3

165,4

167,1

162,8

158,1

The highest productivity isn’t on a variant of ordinary crops with norm of 6 million / piece of seeds on hectare (57,6 ts/hectares). Rather the poor harvest is received on variants broad row crops with high norm of crops of seeds (12 million / hectare piece) (table 2).

In the second hay crop the same tendencies also have remained. The crop of pasturable green weight of the second hay crop was within 40,3-44,1 ts/hectares. In the sum for two hay crops productivity Lotus corniculatus L. was within 87,0-101,7 ts/hectares. Other variants of experience on a crop of pasturable weight conceded to control on 2,6-10,6 ts/hectares. On variants broad row crops with high norm of seeding of seeds productivity of pasturable weight was on 5,8-10,6 ts/hectares below control.

Productivity of pasturable weight in the second year of researches (2007) on hay crops was various. On variants of ordinary crops productivity in the first hay crop was 165,7-195,5 ts/hectares, in the second hay crop – 172,0-201,5 ts/hectares, in the third hay crop – 98,5-145,0 ts/hectares, and in the fourth hay crop – 65,5-95,4 ts/hectares. The highest productivity is received in the second hay crop on a variant with norm of seeding of 6 million / piece on hectare (201,5 ts/hectares). On broad row crops productivity by all variants of experience has appeared below ordinary crops. As a whole on variants of ordinary crops in the sum 501,8-637,4 ts/hectares of pasturable weight or 152,2-192,8 ts/hectares are received for four hay crops from each hectare f.u., and on broad row crops this indicator was up to standard 419,2-492,3 ts/hectares or 127,1-149,3 ts/hectares f.u.

Productivity of pasturable weight Lotus corniculatus L.  horned on the third year of life (2008) was above in comparison with the second year. On variants of ordinary crops productivity in the first hay crop was 147,0-205,4 ts/hectares, in the second hay crop – 140,0-174,7 ts/hectares, in the third hay crop – 126,5-162,6 ts/hectares, and in the fourth hay crop – 111,2-126,5 ts/hectares. The highest productivity is received in the second hay crop on a variant with norm of seeding of 6 million / piece on hectare (205,4 ts/hectares). On broad row crops productivity by all variants of experience has appeared below ordinary crops. As a whole on variants of ordinary crops in the sum for four hay crops from each hectare it is received 508,0-662,1 ts/hectares of pasturable weight, and on broad row crops this indicator was up to standard 525,3-591,2 ts/hectares.

Thus, the greatest productivity of pasturable weight Lotus corniculatus L.  the horned has been received for years of researches at an ordinary way of crops and norm of seeding of 6 million piece / hectare. In first three years of use 101,7 ts/hectares, 637,4 ts/hectares and 662 ts/hectares pasturable green weights are accordingly received.

References:

  • 1. Kutuzova A.A., New settlers Ю.К., Etc. Increase in manufacture of vegetative protein//Moscow, 1985.-191b.
  • 2. Muhina N.A., Baginsky B. Lotus corniculatus L.  horned – a valuable pasturable plant//agricultural manufacture of the Nonchernozemzone. Fodder manufacture 1971, №4, s.70-77
  • 3. Aubakirov K. Floodplainand estuaries meadows Kazakhstan (monograph). Almaty, 2002, 350 with.
  • 4. Shahanov E., Almishev U.H. Mode of use of irrigated cultural pastures (the Floor-mat. The international scientifically-practical conference, Pavlodar, 2011, т.2)
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Отзыв

Уважаемые ученые! Кормовой потенциал сенокосов и пастбищ Казахстана в значительной степени зависит от природных особенностей ландшафтов, к которым они приурочены. Основным следствием изменяющихся экологических условий и хозяйственной деятельности человека является усиливающийся процесс деградации пастбищ и сенокосов. Повышение эффективности использования пастбищ и сенокосов в пределах каждого региона Казахстана должно сочетаться с поиском перспективных видов трав, одной из которых является лядвенец рогатый. В условиях орошения эта культура не изучена, хотя является весьма перспективной кормовой культурой для создания на орошаемых землях культурных пастбищ и сенокосов. Актуальность данных исследований обусловлено тем, что данная культура обладает высокой приспособленностью к почвенно-климатическим условиям, выдерживает конкуренцию дикорастущих трав, отличается зимо- и морозоустойчивостью. Поэтому разработка адаптивной технологии выращивания лядвенца рогатого на семена и корм в условиях орошения юго-востока Казахстана будет способствовать его широкому внедрению в производство, что должно привлечь к себе особое внимание руководителей и специалистов хозяйств, для повышения продуктивности сенокосов и пастбищ. Отдельно хочу отметить, что статья написана на хорошем английском языке, т.е доступна и англязычным ученым этой отрасли. Разрешите пожелать авторам успехов в дальнейших исследованиях!
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