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COLLOGUIAL PRINCIPLES IN ACADEMIC SPEECH
Gulbanu Kossymova, D-r of philological studies, prof.
Kazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abay
This article is about the role of rhetoric speech in a modern science and it defines the main principles of the academic speech. Article considers the analysis of works of Kazakh scientists-orators, such as: Mukhtar Auyezov, Manash Kozybayev, and Abish Kekilbayev.
Keywords: Modern rhetoric, the academic rhetoric, knowledge, science, scientific style and stylistics, scientific knowledge, rhetorical norms, social voice, word choice, author's motive, art of being orator, rhetorical issues and etc.
In a modern philology the role of rhetoric have some new directions: cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, linguistics, stylistics and etc. The rhetoric refers to the achievements of the knowledge theory; it covers psychological aspects, and also considers the basis of social sciences. It guides by norms of the oratorical statement and the rules of a stylistic science. The rhetoric works with broad education and mental abilities, with conscious acts of members of a society. It shows the numerous and widely captured difficult system of rhetoric. The academic speaking has the character of scientific branches among the modern oratory arts. It concerns substantial scientifically-oratorical words. The scientifically-educational oratorical environment includes reports, scientific analysis of art language, and lectures that were read by oratorical language. The scientific maintenance does not uses in strictly inert scientific style; also it does not uses in oral informal conversation. In scientific analysis the author tends to express a little bit of emotion in a terms of expressing the opinion, and his feelings follow the tastes, so there are no way to any useless reports and stamps. Features of scientific style in stylistics of Kazakh linguistics include the usage of words in direct meaning, abundance of terms, large number of difficult scientific concepts, also the requirements peculiar to scientific style, clearness and brevity of thoughts, validity of the facts, and the ability to show other such norms which don't leave at will of emotion. The main objective is to express the maintenance in relation to intelligence of the person. If so, then there will be correct an occurrence of a doubtful question, whether the scientific theme can speak fluently without meeting barriers? Whatever any demand made to all – the finality, judiciousness, emotional diligence, or internal rhetoric colloquial based on philosophy, the poetic embellishment of language moves power of language. The oratorical word is turned to mass because speech, devoted to the people, has social voice – thoughts that have national, educational, informative character. The words that express those thoughts are becomes so beautiful and powerful, that they are able to motivate people. Scientifically-informative researches and lectures are turned to audience. And if they do not have social voice there, there is no informative sense then. Usually, researches on humanitarian sphere are written in scientific-journalistic style, rather than in pure scientific style. Its primary goal is to make scientific information be more understandable for public by writing it in much interesting clear way by using interesting language. To inform not only the certain scientific environment (professors, university students ad so on), but also simple readers and people of different ages, the organization of style of language will be different. It will have a propaganda style. Language structure will have an agitation character. Books, articles, and lecture materials devoted to the mass reader don't have the purpose to explain the content in easy language, but to tell the content in interesting way, to capture audience. The purpose of an academic speech is to explain the truth in a way making the parallel impact on thoughts and feelings at the same time. That is why non-familiar terms to mass become more generalized. For example, instead of abstract concepts there are concrete materials are given, and the way of figurative and emotional expressions are used. Let’s take a look at example – Mukhtar Auyezov. He is the one of outstanding writers of present epoch also he is a great scientist and one of the excellent skillful masters of speech. On whatever scientific topics Auyezov worked on, he always stated them with the great literary skill. For example, in one of his scientific opinions which were about the Kazakh literary language he told following: « When Abay (Abay – Kazakh greatest philosopher, thinker and writer) writes his works of art, he expresses himself in a language of people ». He finds all sacred, graces of pattern of a word in a language of his people. And this is especial, a distinctive feature of Abay. However, along with this the majority of our linguists have come to one disputable opinion that «the beauty of language begins from Abay». But, it is believed that the literary language can not be born only with one writer of an epoch. Besides, we mustn’t forget the beautiful language of short eposes and long ceremonial-historical fairy tales, going from the centuries before Abay. Is it possible to say, that works of Makhambet (Kazakh batyr and poet), who created at the beginning of XXI c. clever and beautiful eposes with rich and national language and the legends, fairy tales, historical stories that were born in Bukhara and which were widely extends among mass, did not consist samples of a pattern of the Kazakh literary language? No, it is not possible to say like that. Just speaking like that scientists urge us to share the thoughts, to discuss about it. (1,64-65). Truly, with the greatest wisdom, they have proved that the basis of literary language comes from the centuries. Scientists have expressed their disagreements by asking rhetorical questions. If to look up the answers to these questions from Auyezov, he defenses his point of view by providing the system of synonym-speech usage. It means to give listeners the chance to believe, the orator uses oppositional concepts in is speech, and in the end of his words he fixes thoughts by using synonym words, introducing words and modal words. From that we see that Auyezov's definitions are clear, words are proved, thoughts deep, and language is artistic. When a scientist is also an orator, then his actual scientific topics surpass others ordinary works many times over. When the maintenance has enriched content, the text is braided with a verbal pattern, the terms in work "will start talking", reader plunges into pleasure and scientific understanding directs smoothly in one direction. One of such orators is the scientist, the academician - Manash Kozybayev. Scientist’s great knowledge in a form of epos satisfies the thirst of the reader, who longing the history. For instance, he tells in his speech: «Turkistan! It is necessary to peer at depth of centuries to understand its secrets and sorrow. First of all, Turkistan is a world history’s component. It continuously contacts with legendary Babylon, sad Jerusalem, great Rome, imperious Vatican, sacred Mecca, and grown wised Kiev». Connected to Egypt, Greece, Vyzantium, India, Iran, and China, it unites with the Steppe civilization, and intertwines with the history of the Kazakh nation. Turkistan not only the history of one nation, but also it has the common history with the whole world, it is one of the sacred talismans on a breast of great world; it is the light of belief for Turkic-language nation’s soul; it is an idol, which united heads of the Turkic people, it is the top of spirit» (2) – By saying this, Kozybayev attracts attention of readers. Then a scientist comes nearer to the main objective which he wanted to express – he starts to analyze facts by oratorical language. What such a rich knowledge! Clear understandable language from the academician to the simple reader. «These are immutable proofs». It has the content with deep meaning. It is expressed by epithets, metaphors and synonym words. It contains the reference, parenthesizes and offers. Each reader spiritualizes, his heart becomes full of pride of the sacred steppe. And this is the almighty power of an oratorical word. Now, we have moved on to the another example – to the article of the public figure and writer Abish Kekilbayev. His work - «The promised land» is scientifically-informative article. The article is full of the words-terms, which are related to natural sciences. Due to that fact that relief is described, the content wouldn't be full without the scientific geographical terms. The completeness of content is done due to author’s many-sided knowledge: «It is seems like there nothing left on the Planet, that wouldn’t grow here, as if the higher forces have collected all celestial secrets here, all the charm in a primordial form in this special showroom.» Here it is the well-known hollow of Karakiya. A hundred twenty-thirty meters below ocean hollow like a huge hole. There is an impression like you have come to the Dead Sea of Sinai Island. Here it is possible to meet the full saline lakes like in Evangelical legends; also some sandy hills that leaves impression as though you float at coast of Greenland, where it is full of icebergs such easy clouds, and white heads of mountains, which not available to any enemy …». (3,555). While reading this article, these beautiful epithets and comparison metaphors, you truly believe in fact that the word term on an occasion of a literary word carries out its function of indisputable proofs. This phenomenon in oratory calls a “word choice.” In oratory language forms are gets out for drawing up the report of thoughts. In this text we can see the author’s joyful motive that transfers his love to native land. It is visible even in repeated usage of the grammatical forms. If it is so, then it’s possible to transfer any scientific topic in art language. So here we again remember Chekhov's words: “We people are passionless, boring, blood in our veins for a long time was already baked with boredom. We do not chase pleasures and we do not search for them, and us at all doesn't disturb that we indifferent to oratory that we lose one of the higher and noblest pleasures accessible to the person.” But even when it is non-desirable to enjoy, then still it would be advisable to remember that at all times rich language and oratory went nearby. Perhaps at some time even we will wait that our lawyers, professors and in general the officials who are obliged on service to speak, not only academically, but also it is intelligible and beautiful, will not begin to justify that they «aren't able to speak well» (4,150).
1. Auyezov, Mukhtar. The Collection of the literary work, volume 12, А, 1985.
2. Kozybayev, Manash. Turkistan; The Kazakhstani truth. 2000, on October, 20th.
3. Kekilbayev, Abish. Freedom Dawn, А.1998.
4. Chehov, A.P. Good news//About oratory. М, 1973.