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METHODIC INSTRUMENTS OF THE COMPLEX ESTIMATION OF THE CLUSTER’S FUNCTIONING EFFECTIVENESS IN A REGION

Автор Доклада: 
Iermakova O.
Награда: 
METHODIC INSTRUMENTS OF THE COMPLEX ESTIMATION OF THE CLUSTER’S FUNCTIONING EFFECTIVENESS IN A REGION

УДК 334.764+332.132:001.8

 

METHODIC INSTRUMENTS OF THE COMPLEX ESTIMATION OF THE CLUSTER’S FUNCTIONING EFFECTIVENESS IN A REGION

Iermakova Olga, researcher
Institute of Market Problems and Economic & Ecological Research of
the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

 

In the article the link between the cluster effects and factors of cumulative growth of the Gross Regional Product, that is an indicator of the increase of the region’s competitiveness, have been determinated. The methodic approach to estimation of economical effects that are created within a cluster and gives a complex estimation of the cluster’s functioning effectiveness in a region has been worked out.
Key words: cluster, methodic approach, effect, region, competitiveness.

В статті досліджено взаємозв’язок між ефектами кластеризації та факторами кумулятивного росту валового регіонального продукту, який є індикатором підвищення конкурентоспроможності регіону. Розроблено методичний підхід комплексної оцінки ефективності функціонування кластерів в регіоні на основі ефектів, що створюються в рамках кластеру
Ключові слова: кластер, методичний підхід, ефект, регіон, конкурентоспроможність.

 

Clusters’ functioning in a region needs an estimation of their influence on the economical development of a region. As researches have shown, the majority of the existent scientific and methodical approaches of the analysis of cluster’s effectiveness are oriented on the estimation of the dynamic of cluster’s development in a region. At the same time, it is important for the complex estimation of the cluster’s functioning in a region to determine interconnections between the economic results of cluster functioning and factors, which these results have stipulated.

According to the regional export specialization theory (Armstrong H. and Taylor J., 1980s) [1], a regional growth rate directly proportional depends on export dynamic. Due to this theory the external demand on regional export products is a function of a price on export goods, profit rate and price on goods-substitutes on the world markets, and also of a products’ quality and after-sale service. Moreover, factors that determine the level of production costs, among which are salary, raw materials, amortization costs, the level of the technological development, operational costs, also influence on the region place on world markets. If these factors influence on regional export growth, the level of the Gross Regional Product increase gradually, and, accordingly, the local people’s well-being increase.

The cyclical theory of cumulative competitiveness of a region (McCombie J. and Setterfield М. A., 2002) also assign a key role to export in competitiveness of a region [2, 3]. Due to this theory the cycle of the region’s competitiveness growth is the following: growth of Gross Regional Product (GRP) – activization of innovation activities – increase of labour productivity level – decrease of relative salary costs – decrease of production cost on export goods – increase of the demand on export goods (Chart 1).

These theories are proved by the empirical research of competitiveness factors of the NUTS-2 level regions of the EU countries, which was conducted by the European Commission Directorate-General Regional Policy [4].

Chart 1. The cyclical theory of cumulative competitiveness of a region

 

Thus, the indicator of the level of competitiveness of a region is an extent of realization of its export potential.

The additional economical effect that strengthens competitive advantages of a region is developed within a cluster. Enterprises-participants of the cluster receive an additional synergetic effect owing to joint resource exploitation (the strategy of technologies and costs), market infrastructure (joint merchandising) and fields of activities (synergy of planning and management). The sense of the synergy strategy is a possibility to receive higher production profitability due to interrelations between enterprises within the cluster than in the situation when they function separately [5, p. 52-53]. An additional social and economical effects are received due to the cluster-type siting of production and service enterprises according to their transport and geographic allocation; sustainability of cross-sectoral linkages, that is especially important in terms of unsteadiness on world markets; reduction of transport costs; complex usage of all resources [6, p. 160-161].

There are following economical effects that receive enterprises due to their participation in the cluster:

1) Effect of joint adaptation of innovations: technological exchange increases significantly the cluster’s competitiveness, because new ideas, business processes, technologies become accessible for all enterprises within the cluster;

2) Effect of outsourcing: an enterprise deliver supporting business processes and production functions to a specialized company that helps to concentrate free organizational, financial, human resources in top-priority fields;

3) Effect of risk spread between the cluster participants: enterprises provide joint risk management to decrease a size of possible losses;

4) Effect of joint usage of an infrastructure: deepening of a production technologic specialization and cooperation, setting up of service and support enterprises and infrastructural objects;

5) Effect of transaction costs decrease: a joint knowledge and information data base is formed within the cluster that eliminate a peculiarity of resources;

6) Effect of forming of a joint goods-distributing base on each kind of cargo flow: this base helps to decrease costs on immobilization of circulating assets when they are in a process of delivery.

The methodic approach to estimation of economical effects that receive enterprises due to their participation in the cluster (Table 1) is based on the following methods: method of determination of social and economical effect of forming of maritime complex (Dergachev V.O., Damaskina O.P., Motsarenko V.I., Tarakanov M.L., 1991 ) [6, p. 160-167]; innovation activity (Hariv P.S., 2003) [7, p. 119-141]; usage of joint goods-distributing base (Kugaevskiy O.O., 1989) [8].

This methodic approach was approbated by the example of maritime cluster Mersey Maritime (Great Britain). One of the logistic enterprises of the cluster - Peel Holdings was chosen as a target of research, analyzed years - 2003 as a year before the forming of the cluster (the year of its setting up) and 2004 as a year after the forming of the cluster. The information base of the research was annual reports of the cluster and analytical research of maritime clusters in the world that are provided by the consulting company «Fisher Associates» [9, 10].

Table 1

The methodic approach to estimation of economical effects that are created within a cluster

The analysis has shown that the most significant economical effect was provided by joint adaptation of innovations within a cluster, and also by joint usage of an infrastructure and risk spread between the cluster participants (Table 2).

Table 2

Economical effects that the logistic enterprises Peel Holdings has received due to its participation in the maritime cluster Mersey Maritime (Great Britain)

Influence of a cluster on the region’s competitiveness we have proved on the basis of the cyclical theory of cumulative competitiveness of a region. As it can be seen on Chart 2, the additional economic effects within the cluster strengthen the increase factors of the region’s competitiveness. The effect of joint adaptation of innovations within the cluster influence on activization of innovation activities in the region that in its turn causes an increase of labour productivity level in the region. The effect of outsourcing within the cluster helps to decrease salary costs in supporting production processes and functions of the enterprise. The effects of risk spread between the cluster participants, joint usage of an infrastructure, transaction costs decrease influence on the production cost. An effective satisfaction of demand on the region’s export is provided by the forming of a joint goods-distributing base on each kind of cargo flow within the cluster that speeds up deliveries of cargo.

Chart 2. The influence of cluster effects on the factors of the region’s competitiveness increase

 

Thus, the proposed methodic approach of complex estimation of the cluster’s functioning effectiveness in a region give an opportunity to investigate the sources of synergetic effect of the cluster for enterprises-participants of the cluster and also for the region where this cluster functions. This methodic approach is universal, takes into account the additional synergetic effect, is easy to use, decreases the time for a cluster analysis that is especially important in conditions of changeable external environment.

 

Literature:

  • 1. Armstrong H. Regional Economics and Policy / H. Armstrong, J. Taylor. – [3rd ed]. - Oxford: Wiley, 2000. – 448 p
  • 2. McCombie J. Productivity Growth and Economic Performance: Essays on Verdoorn’s Law / McCombie J., Pugno M., Soro B. – Houndmills : Palgrave, 2002. - 296 p.
  • 3. Setterfield М. A. A model of Kaldorian traverse: cumulative causation, structural change and evolutionary hysteresis / M. A. Setterfield. - 2002. - 233 p.
  • 4. A Study on the Factors of Regional Competitiveness. A draft final report for The European Comission Directorate-General Regional Policy / [editor Prof. Roland L. Martin]. – Cambridge. - 2002. – 184 p.
  • 5. Ашинов С. А. Учет синергетических эффектов интеграции в индустрии туризма / С. А. Ашинов // Успехи современного естествознания. – 2005. - №3. – С. 52-53.
  • 6. Морехозяйственный комплекс : в 2 т. / [Буркинский Б.В., Степанов В.Н., Дергачев В.А. и др.] ; гл. ред. Б. В. Буркинский / АН УССР Одес. отд-ние Ин-та экономики. – К.: Наук. Думка, 1991. – Т.1. – 352 с.
  • 7. Харів П. С. Інноваційна діяльність підприємства та економічна оцінка інноваційних процесів. – Тернопіль: Економічна думка, 2003. – 326 с.
  • 8. Кугаевский А. А. Эффективность регионального транспортного комплекса (методологические вопросы) / А. А. Кугаевский. – Новосибирск: Наука.Сиб.отд-ние, 1989. – 128с.
  • 9. Mersey Maritie. Economic Impact Study // Final Report prepared by Fisher Associates - 2005. - 29 р.
  • 10. Mersey Maritime Group. Draft Strategy // Report prepared by Fisher Associates - 2003. – Volume 4. - 69 р.
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