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INTERSTATE STANDARDIZATION SYSTEM OF WESTERN AND EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES, ADAPTATION
Dyatlova V.V., Doctor of Philosophy (Technical Sciences), Associate Professor
Oleinikova S.S., Doctor of Philosophy (Public Administration), Associate Professor
Korol D.V., PhD student
Donetsk State University of Management, Donetsk (Ukraine)
Are analyzed the similarities and differences in standardization systems of European Union and Commonwealth of Independent States, general approach to the used mechanisms are showed, problems and prospects for adaptation.
Key words: interstate standardization system, regulation, general approach, mechanisms, adaptation, harmonization of standards.
To the development of economic and trade cooperation between the countries of the world favour largely to international standardization that aimed at harmonizing the requirements for goods and services.
Nowadays time has widespread obtain regional (interstate) standardization that aimed at creating a single market of certain economic-territorial units by removing technical barriers in the trade-economic and scientific-technical cooperation. For the Ukrainian economy most expediency is conducting coherence policy in the field of standardization, metrology and certification with the major partners in the external economic activity – European Union (EU) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
To the analysis of trends and issues in standardization and technical regulation of the EU and CIS countries are devoted to works of foreign and domestic scientists, but they are have generalizing nature without the relative performance of regional systems [1, 2, 3]. This determined the relevance of research to specifying adapt ways these interstate systems.
Modern approaches of standardization have accumulated by States-members of the EU during the past two decades. Work management in this sphere exercises the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC), European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In 1998 by CEN was organized a new subdivision named ISSS (the Information Society Standardization System), to provide market participants of the European Information Society by comprehensive and integral information and telecommunication technologies standards system. All organizations work in close cooperation.
The main object of these organizations is to promote the standardization process in Europe, cooperation with other international standardization organizations, implementation of technology policy in the International Standardization according to European interests, providing a norm basis for creating (in 1992) and effective functioning of the European market.
In European organizations has represented national authorities of the European states. Technical work has been performing in technical committees (TC), whose activities are coordinated technical bureau. Program committees make a standardization program; take the ISO and IEC standards as European standards or documents for harmonization.
European Standard Organizations develop recommendations (TС research their technical aspects), that subsequently published by CEN/CENELEC with the status of the European Standards (EN), European harmonized documents (HD), required for use at the national level with simultaneous repeal of conflicting documents or preliminary standards (ENV), that are developed in prospective areas for temporary using for three years, and European standards in various sphere, which are technical descriptions.
ISSS implement a new development technology of open specifications for formal standardization system, on the basis of activity so-called special working groups (workshops). For this object ISSS implements project support services (or their individual stages) for developing open specifications, initial proposals examinants of, seeking projects financial project support and produced of the final product in a form of a new documents type – CWA (CEN Workshop Agreement), which by secretariat ISSS is sent to all members of CEN.
For today there is a clear approach to standardization in the EU, which consists of coherent policy-legal bases: directives (laws) and solutions. Directives (EU law) establish "technical regulations" (TR) – common requirements to health protection and safety – for special product categories and conformity assessment procedures. EN is defined as a basic requirements for the types of products (required to fulfill directly or by reference to the national standards that are harmonized with international and European requirements, standards), and other product characteristics (appearance, durability, etc.), then they are not prescribed by the European Commission as requirements.
For such interaction within the EU has been national standardization system of EU Member States upgraded. At the core of modernization there is a systematic approach, which consists of five phases: a directive adoption, the construction of institutional structures, improvement of processes, feedback regarding between the laws and policies, changing laws and policies. In a similar scenario has been reformed a system of technical regulation in many countries, including the new EU members.
Realization of such approach has helped to develop equal institutional structures for all countries– systems of standardization, metrology, certification and conformity assessment, accreditation, market inspectors and information.
In the CIS standardization sphere is coordinated by the Intergovernmental Soviet for standardization, Metrology and certification (ISC), in which are represented the national organization of 12 States members of CIS, including Ukraine.
In accordance with the intergovernmental “Agreement for a coordinated policy in the field of standardization, metrology and certification”, beginning since 1992 and the Protocol from 20 June 2000 , normative-technical potential has been retained and adapted to modern conditions, which accumulate – existing in the USSR normative document funds (25 thousand GOSTs, 40 thousand OSTs, 35 classifiers of technical-economic information) and standard base.
The ISC active elements are: Bureau of Standards, Metrology and certification (are responsible for the standards dissemination), scientific-technical committee on setting of out put rates and standardization, the coordinating group in different directions and TC.
The ISC activity results in intergovernmental standards and intergovernmental technical regulations . At the present time the interstate standards fund includes more than 20 thousand, constantly updated by the reconsideration normative documents that had been ratificated before 1990, and harmonized with international new standards. Harmonization level of the intergovernmental standards which are adapted to international and European is 40%. Intergovernmental standards constitute the main part of the CIS member funds and are required to fulfill.
Consequently, cooperation within the CIS, as well as CEN, by means of a common mechanism of technical regulation in the standards form and technical regulations that are being developed by the national systems of CIS countries, and therefore the ISC main objective is the creation of legal and normative technical base for their harmonization (from the previous paragraph).
The building of a standardization system among CIS countries is identical. So, usually standardization work is directed by State Standard, which combines five functions: standardization, metrology, conformity assessment (certification, testing, inspection, control), state inspection, protection of consumer rights.
However, in accordance with international rules, for example, the conditions of Ukraine's membership in the WTO with regard to ensuring transparency in the process of developing technical regulations and standards, as well as their availability for users and trading partners needs reformation and redistribution functions of the public agency. The system of state inspection and control also need to be improved: a shift from state inspection of standards at the production stage to the introduction of quality management systems and market inspection.
In the CIS countries, including Ukraine, has not received yet widespread practice of voluntary standardization and participation of Ukrainian business in developing national standards harmonized with international and European. In addition, there is a tendency to increase the number of industry standards, departmental rules and technical conditions that do not meet modern scientific and technological level and complicate the coordination of work on standardization.
In 1995, the Board of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) recognized the ISC Regional Organization for Standardization the CIS countries with the assignment to it English name – Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), which reflects the geographical name of a region, in which ISC operates. EASC signed cooperation agreements with ISO and CEN.
Therefore the standardization systems of EU and CIS have similarities in the building organization structure, approaches to the development of standards and technical regulations – the basic of interaction mechanism. The difference between the systems is connected with national authorities subordination: among EU members they are independent organizations, in the CIS – elements of state governance. Intergovernmental standards are obligatory, while EN – not only obligatory, but also voluntary. Technical regulations adoption is the basic way for standard harmonization of CIS states to the European ones.
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