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THE CLASSIFICATION OF RISKS OF THE BUILDING ENTERPRISE

Автор Доклада: 
Turko M.A.
Награда: 
THE CLASSIFICATION OF RISKS OF THE BUILDING ENTERPRISE

УДК 658

 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF RISKS OF THE BUILDING ENTERPRISE

Turko M.A., post-graduate student

 

Different approaches to the risks classification are analyzed. The risks caused by the features of the building enterprise functioning are enumerated.

Keywords: risk, classification, building enterprise.

There are many approaches to the classification of risks in economic literature. It is explained by the fact that various aims and tasks can serve as an initial point for realization of systematization of risks. Id est the aim of creation and further use of classification is individual for every separate case and enterprise.

It should be noted that scientifically reasonable classification of risks assists the faithful placing of every separate risk in the general system and creates the basis for the effective use of corresponding methods and receptions of risks management. Under classification of risks their distribution on separate groups on certain signs for the achievement of concrete aims is understood [1].

The enormous amount of signs can be fixed in basis of classification of risks, for example, type of activity, to that corresponding risks are related; nature of objects that can be exposed to the risk; source of origin of risk and many others.

Many domestic and foreign scientists pay attention to the range of problems of classification of risks, among them: Balabanov I.T., Bilikrilova O.S., Borovkova V.A., Vasilev V.M., Gorfinkel V.J., Dranaturov V.M., Zamchalov S.S., Ivchenko S.U., Kachalov R., Keynes J.M., Kudryavtseva A.A., Litovchenko I.B., Malashihina N.N., Panibratov U.P., Skamay L., Tempan L.N., Fadeev S., Harichkov S.K., Hohlov N.V., Chotnov N.V., Chornova G.V., Shapkin A.S., Sharpe W., Shvandar V.A. and many others.

So, in the "Treatise about money", published in 1930 and the "General theory of employment, percent and money" (1937) John Maynard Keynes. first proposes the classification of enterprise risks: risk of businessman or borrower; risk of creditor and risk of inflation.

American scientist Sharpe W. conditionally divides risks on systematic and specific. Systematic risks are the consequence of unfavorable economic terms, and specific - by the result of action of casual factors that touch separate enterprises [2]. In other words risks can be divided by the place of origin on external and internal. The row of scientists points such distribution of risks [3,4,5,6,7,8,9].

By nature origins objective and subjective risks are distinguished [3,5,7].

Some scientists classify risks by the level of origin (by the limits of scope or scale)[3,4,5,7,9,10]: local (microeconomic), branch, regional, national (macroeconomic) and international (global). By the object of origin [4,7]: risks of separate operation, risks of separate direction of activity, risks of enterprise on the whole.

By the type of entrepreneurial activity next classification of risks is offered [5,7,11,12]: productive; commercial; financial; investment; innovative; marketing; administrative or organizational.

Other scientists offer classification by the basic factors of origin (or by the sphere of surroundings of investment project), in that risks are divided into the following [9,10,12,13]: economic, political, technical, ecological, social, legal, informative and moral. By the possible result clean and speculative risks are distinguished [3,4,8,10,15].

After the type of losses a direct damage and indirect losses are distinguished [4,12].

A special attention should be paid to the classification by the degree of risk (by the level of losses) admission [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]: minimum, possible, critical and catastrophic.

There are some classifications of risks by the possibility of influence on the risk: 1) by the degree of dirigibility [10]: guided (open), conditionally out of control, out of control (closed); 2) by the presence of analogues of decisions [3]: ordinary and eccentric; 3) by the possibility of insurance [3,6,7,8,10,16,17]: those, that can be insured; those, that can not be.

By the possibility of risk evaluation next classifications should be noticed: 1) by the possibility of foresight and exactness of estimation [3,4,7,8,9,10]: predictable, difficult to predict and unpredictable; 2) by possibility of calculation [3,4]: those, that can be calculated and those, that can not.

There are classifications that touch features of investment-building activity. So, by the belonging to the enterprises distinguish [6]: risks of investor, bank, leasing, risks of performer and risks of suppliers.

Row of scientists offers classification of risks by the phases of investment activity [3,5,7,8,9,14]: risks of pre-investment phase, risks of investment phase, risks of productive phase, risks of operating phase.

Thus, analyzing all above enumerated classifications of risks, it should me mentioned, that each of them can be used for a building enterprise in one or another measure. But it is necessary to notice that none of them takes into account risks that are caused by the features of process of creation of building products such, as large enough duration of productive cycle, dependence on seasonality and naturally climatic terms and temporal character and type of building production.

To our opinion, while creating the classification of risks for the enterprises of the building industry the special attention to next risks, that are caused by the features of building enterprise functioning, should be paid.

Risks caused by such features of productive cycle of building enterprise, as, for example, distraction of money from economic turnover in a construction in progress because of the protracted terms of building process, severe sequence of stages in process of creation of building products, where a failure in one of the stages can be result in the failure of further production etc. We suggest to name such risks for the building enterprise productive.

Risks that are related to the changes of terms of completion of the certain stage, and thus of the production of building product in general, such as, delay of preparation of project documentation and terms of claim of project by public organs and other. It is expedient, to our opinion, to name these risks temporal. The productive and temporal risks in a building enterprise are caused by large duration of productive cycle.

As natural risks we suggest to understand risks that can be provoked by the natural features of the process of building enterprise products’ creation locality, such as, by seismic terms, hypsography, geological structure of soil, presence of subsoil waters, method of delivery on the site area of constructions and materials.

Risks related to the errors and incorrect calculations in the design estimates, that caused by the singularity of every separate product of building enterprise. It is expedient to name these risks - project-estimate.

Summing up, it is necessary to notice that we consider the creation of universal classification of risks for all building enterprises of Ukraine almost impossible and unnecessary, as an aim of creation of every separate classification can be absolutely various. But in any case we consider the risks, caused by the building enterprise functioning features, are necessary to count.

 

Literature:

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  2. Иода Е. В., Иода Ю. В., Мешкова Л. Л., Болотина Е. Н. Управление предпринимательскими рисками. 2-е изд.. испр. и перераб. Тамбов: Изд-во Тамб. гос. техн. ун-та, 2002.

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  6. Управление строительными инвестиционными проектами: Учеб.пособие/ Под общ. ред. В.М. Васильева, Ю.П. Панибратова; Гос.ком. РФ по высш. обр-ю, Ассоц. строит. вузов, СПб. Гос.архит.-строит.ун-т. – М.: Изд-во АСВ; Гос.архит.-строит.ун-т., 1997. – 307с.

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